Animal Influenza Virus

Author : Erica Spackman

Published in : Humana press

ISBN : 978-1-4939-0758-8

File Type : pdf

File Size : 7 mb

Language : English

Description

Influenza A viruses are among the most important pathogens for humans, food animals, and companion animals. Of the animal influenza viruses, avian, swine, and equine influenza are likely to have the greatest economic impact internationally because of their value as food animals or, with horses due to a large sport competition industry. Also, although the risk is truly unknown, as domestic animals, poultry, swine, and horses have extended contact with humans, which provides an interface for inter species transmission, there is always the potential for these animal influenza viruses to become threats to public health. Regardless of the possible implications for public health, influenza is highly significant to poultry, swine, and equine health. Research and diagnostics with animal influenza viruses are critical to animal health in its own right and it should be recognized that the needs and goals of animal agriculture and veterinary medicine are not always the same as those of public health. Even within these three examples of animal influenza viruses there are differences in the approach which may need to be taken, as the structure of the poultry, swine, and equine industries are different and there are some biological differences of influenza virus from each animal group as well. One of the aims of this book is to sort out those differences and to provide host, strain, and lineage specific guidance and procedures. The reader will also recognize that in some cases the same method is described for all three of these animal viruses, for example real-time RT-PCR or hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. At first glance this may seem redundant; however there are often seemingly minor, but crucial differences in the assay, such as sample processing for each species (e.g., how to treat for sera the HI assay) or the specificity of reagents (e.g., primer sequences for RT-PCR; optimal laboratory host system for virus isolation). In contrast there are some methods that will be unique to an animal influenza virus group and parameters will necessarily vary. Certainly, assays may be adapted to individual study needs with proper optimization or can simply be used as they are described. The aim of this book is to provide the essential methods used in working with animal influenza viruses, and to compile more advanced information that will guide the user in designing influenza studies.
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