Dengue Methods and Protocols

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Author : Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan


Published in : Humana Press

ISBN : 978-1-4939-0348-1

File Type : pdf

File Size : 18 mb

Language : English

Description

Infection by fl aviviruses such as dengue virus serotypes (DENV 1–4), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE), yellow fever virus (YFV), and West Nile virus (WNV) impacts millions of lives and causes tens of thousands of mortalities each year. Recent studies on global dengue burden indicated that there are at least 100 million human symptomatic infections annually. This original estimate has recently been revised in 2013 to about three times higher than the dengue burden estimate of the World Health Organization. The urban-breeding Aedes aegypti mosquito has spread the DENV to more than 100 countries around the world and ~50 % of the world’s population is now estimated to be at risk. Dengue is a global public health emergency especially since there is no preventative vaccine or antiviral treatment for dengue disease. Usually, infection with any one of the four DENV serotypes leads to mild self-limiting dengue fever (DF) with lifelong immunity to that specific serotype. Epidemiological evidence suggests that 90 % of the severe and potentially fatal dengue diseases, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome (DSS) occur during secondary heterotypic infections where the protective antibodies from a previous infection become pathogenic through the Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE) phenomenon. The co-circulation of multiple serotypes in dengue epidemic countries increases the risk of severe dengue diseases due to ADE. Dengue has also reappeared in the United States of America: the combination of a low immunity in the population, increased mosquito vector activity, and the continuous introduction of virus from the endemic countries forms the right ingredient for explosive epidemics.
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