Rhinoviruses Methods and Protocols

Author : David A. Jans & Reena Ghildyal

Published in : HUMANA PRESS

ISBN : 978-1-4939-1571-2

File Type : pdf

File Size : 5 mb

Language : English

Description

Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are the major cause of common colds as well as being recognized more recently as the major viral cause of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. The advent of molecular diagnostic techniques and confirmation of HRV as the main cause of asthma exacerbations has led to a heightened interest in HRV biology, with a signifi cant increase in our understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis. Seminal discoveries of the past decade include the demonstration that HRV infection is not limited to the epithelium, but can infect subepithelial layers of the airway wall, the discovery of a third HRV genotype that with special properties in terms of disease severity, and the description of disrupted nuclear transport in HRV infected cells through action of the HRV proteases on the host cell nuclear pore. New and improved molecular, cellular, protocols developed specifi cally to studying HRV have played a key role in enabling all of these discoveries. Important technical advances include the development of a validated mouse model for HRV infection, the establishment of HRV infection in primary airway cells, the generation of a reverse genetics system for HRV, and application of spectroscopic and microscopic analysis to understanding HRV biology. Given the increasing global incidence of asthma, the importance of HRV in asthma and COPD exacerbations, together with the rapid advancements in methodology, this is a more than opportune time to bring together current state-of-the-art methodologies to study HRV biology. HRV are the viruses most commonly isolated from persons experiencing mild upper
respiratory illnesses (common colds). Although infections are chiefl y limited to the upper respiratory tract, HRV may also cause otitis media and sinusitis. Importantly, HRVs may also exacerbate asthma, COPD, cystic fi brosis, chronic bronchitis, and serious lower respiratory tract illness in infants, elderly persons, and immunocompromised persons. Although infections occur all year round, the incidence is highest in the fall and the spring. 70–80 % of persons exposed to the virus have symptomatic disease, which in most cases is mild and self-limited.
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