Principles of Toxicology Testing



Published in :  CRC Press

ISBN :  0-8493-9025-7

File Type : pdf

File Size : 7 mb

Language : English


In the past few decades, the science of toxicology testing has evolved from an applied and supportive science, progressing in the shadows of more highly defined areas of mechanistic toxicology, to its own refined and technical discipline. Much like the development of other fields such as genetic engineering or information technology, the maturing of the discipline has been sporadic. In particular, its progress has been prompted particularly by public health initiatives, needs, and responses. The emerging and continuous accessibility of chemicals that are ubiquitous in society and therapeutic drugs that have extended the human life span to unparalleled levels has prompted faster, more accurate, reliable, and economical methods for screening for potential toxicity. With the burgeoning advances of biotechnology comes the availability of corresponding in vitro systems that complement traditional animal toxicology testing methods. This book is divided into three parts: Section I, Basic Concepts in Toxicology Testing; Section II, Toxicology Testing In Vivo; and Section III, Toxicology Testin In Vitro. It begins with an introduction into the fundamentals of toxicology (Section I) to prepare students for the subsequent topics, and continues with discussions of toxicokinetics and human risk assessment. This introductory material is useful in explaining the applications of toxicology testing. Section II describes in detail the fundamental principles of toxicology testing in animals. It describes acute toxicity, subchronic, and chronic studies performed in animals. Special emphasis is placed on study design and determination of classical indicators of acute and chronic studies such as the LD
50 values. Other short- and long-term animal toxicity testing methodologies including dermal, ocular, and reproductive toxicity testing are discussed. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies are also discussed in separate chapters.
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