Industrial Inorganic Chemistry Free Download

Industrial Inorganic Chemistry


Author:
Buchel K. H.
Published in: Wiley-VCH
Release Year: 2000
ISBN: 978-3527-2-9849-5
Pages: 669
Edition: Second Edition
File Size: 29 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Industrial Inorganic Chemistry


In the more than 10 years, since the publication of the first edition of the book “Industrial Inorganic Chemistry”, the structure of inorganic industrial chemistry has not changed fundamentally. In most sectors the “state of the art” has been expanded and refined. This is addressed together with the updating of the economic data in this new edition. The pressure for change in the meantime was due in particular to globalization of the World economy and the resulting pressure for cost reduction through new and optimalized processes and to an expanding knowledge of ecological requirements e.g. energy saving and new production and development principles such as quality assurance and responsible care.
To the extent that it is discernible in the products and processes, appropriate aspects have been incorporated in the revision, for example see membrane technology in the chloralkali and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. Expansion of the sections on the products of silicon chemistry, silanes, heavy duty ceramics and photovoltaics reflects their increased importance. Chapter 6 over the Nuclear Fuel Cycle has been updated as regards technical developments and in particular as regards its societal and political context. In inorganic chemistry there have been important changes particularly in inorganic materials such as new composite materials and so-called nano-materials, in the area of photovoltaics and in catalysis. Since these have not yet been widely used industrially, they have not been covered in the second edition of Industrial Inorganic Chemistry book.

Content of Industrial Inorganic Chemistry


1 Primary Inorganic Materials 1
1.1 Water 1
1.1.1 Economic Importance 1
1.1.2 Production of Potable Water 2
1.1.2.1 Break-Point Chlorination and Ozonization 3
I. 1.2.2 Flocculation and Sedimentation 4
1 .I .2.3 Filtration 5
1.1.2.5 Activated Charcoal Treatment 7
1.1.2.6 Safety Chlorination 8
1.1.2.7 Production of Soft or Deionized Water 8
1.1.3 Production of Freshwater from Seawater and Brackish Water 10
1.1.3.1 Production by Multistage Flash Evaporation 10
References for Chapter 1.1 : Water 13

Removal of Dissolved Inorganic Impurities 5

Production using Reverse Osmosis 11
1.2 Hydrogen 14
I .2.1 Economic Importance I4
1.2.2 Hydrogen Manufacture I5
1.2.2. I Petrochemical Processes and Coal Gasification 15
1.2.2.2 Electrolysis of Water 16
I .2.2.3 Other Manufacturing Processes for Hydrogen I7
I .2.2.4
I .2.3 Hydrogen Applications 18
References for Chapter 1.2: Hydrogen 19

Production of Hydrogen as a Byproduct 18
Hydrogen Peroxide and Inorganic Peroxo Compounds 20
Economic Importance 20
Hydrogen Peroxide 20
Sodium Perborate and Sodium Carbonate Perhydrate 20
Alkali Peroxodisulfates and Sodium Peroxide 2 1
Production 21
Hydrogen Peroxide 21
Sodium Perborate 24
Sodium Carbonate Perhydrate 25
Alkali Peroxodisulfate 26
Sodium Peroxide 26

X Contents

1.3.3 Applications 27
1.3.3.2 Alkali Peroxodisulfates and Sodium Peroxide 28
References for Chapter 1.3: Hydrogen Peroxide and Inorganic Peroxo Compounds 28
Hydrogen Peroxide, Sodium Perborate and Sodium Carbonate Perhydrate 27
1.4.1 Ammonia 29
1.4.1.1 Economic Importance 29
1.4.1.2 Synthetic Ammonia Manufacture 29
1.4.1.2.1 General Information 29
1.4.1.2.2 Ammonia Synthesis Catalysts 30
1.4.1.2.3 Synthesis Gas Production 32
1.4.1.3 Ammonia Applications 43
References for Chapter I .4: Nitrogen and Nitrogen Compounds 43
1.4.2 Hydrazine 43
1.4.2.1 Economic Importance 43
1.4.2.2 Manufacture of Hydrazine 44
I .4.2.2.1 Raschig Process 44
1.4.2.2.2 Urea Process 45
1.4.2.2.3 Bayer Process 46
1.4.2.2.4 H,Oz Process 47
1.4.2.3 Applications of Hydrazine 48
References for Chapter 1.4.2: Hydrazine 49
I .4.3 Hydroxylamine 50
I .4.3.2 Manufacture 50
1.4.3.2.1 Raschig Process 5 1
References for Chapter 1.4.3: Hydroxylamine 53
1.4.4 Nitric Acid 53
1.4.4.1 Economic Importance 53
1.4.4.2 Manufacture 53
I .4.4.2. I Fundamentals of Nitric Acid Manufacture 53
1.4.4.2.2 Plant Types 57
1.4.4.2.3 Process Description 58
1.4.4.2.5 Tail Gases from Nitric Acid Manufacture 62
1.4.4.3 Nitric Acid Applications 64
References for Chapter 1.4.4: Nitric Acid 65
Nitrogen and Nitrogen Compounds 29

Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Ammonia 39
Integrated Ammonia Synthesis Plants 41

Economic Importance and Applications 50
Nitrogen(I1) Oxide Reduction Process 5 1
Nitrate Reduction Process (DSM/HPO-Stamicarbon) 52

Manufacture of Highly Concentrated Nitric Acid 59
1.5.1. I Raw Materials 65
Phosphorus and its Compounds 65
Phosphorus and Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds 65

Contents XI

1.5.1.2 Products 67
1.5.1.2.1 Phosphoric Acid 67
1.5.1.2.2 Phosphoric Acid Salts 75
1.5.1.2.3 Phosphorus 80
References for Chapter 1.5.1 : Phosphorus and Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds 90
1.5.2 Organophosphorus Compounds 9 1
1.5.2.1 Neutral Phosphoric Acid Esters 9 1
1.5.2.2 Phosphoric Ester Acids 94
1.5.2.3 Dithiophosphoric Ester Acids 94
1.5.2.6 Phosphonic Acids 99
References for Chapter 1.5.2: Organophosphorus Compounds 101
Products Manufactures from Phosphorus 85

Neutral Esters of Thio- and Dithio-Phosphoric Acids 95
Neutral Di- and Triesters of Phosphorous Acid 97
Sulfur and Sulfur Compounds 101
Sulfur 101
Occurrence 10 1
Economic Importance 102
Sulfur from Elemental Sulfur Deposits 102
Sulfur from Hydrogen Sulfide and Sulfur Dioxide 102
Sulfur from Pyrites 103
Economic Importance I04
Applications 104
Sulfuric Acid 104
Economic Importance 104
Starting Materials for Sulfuric Acid Manufacture 105
Sulfuric Acid from Sulfur Dioxide 105
Sulfuric Acid from Waste Sulfuric Acid and Metal Sulfates 1 13
Applications of Sulfuric Acid 115
100% Sulfur Dioxide 1 16
100% Sulfur Trioxide 117
Disulfur Dichloride I 18
Sulfur Dichloride 1 18
Thionyl chloride 119
Sulfuryl Chloride 1 19
Chlorosulfonic Acid 120
Fluorosulfonic Acid 120
Sulfurous Acid Salts 120
Sodium Thiosulfate, Ammonium Thiosulfate 12 1
Sodium Dithionite and Sodium Hydroxymethanesulfinate 122
Hydrogen Sulfide 124
Sodium Sulfide I24
Sodium Hydrogen Sulfide 125
Carbon Disulfide 126

References for Chapter 1.6: Sulfur and Sulfur Compounds 126

XI1 Contents

Halogens and Halogen Compounds 127
Fluorine and Fluorine Compounds I27
Fluorspar 127
Fluorspar Extraction 128
Qualities and Utilization of Fluorspar 128
Fluorapatite 130
Fluorine and Inorganic Fluorides I30
Fluorine 130
Hydrogen Fluoride I32
Aluminum Fluoride 138
Sodium Aluminum Hexafluoride (Cryolite) 140
Alkali Fluorides 141
Hexafluorosilicates 142
Uranium Hexafluoride 142
Boron Trifluoride and Tetrafluoroboric Acid 142
Sulfur Hexafluoride 143
Organofluoro Compounds by Electrochemical Fluorination I44 -
References for Chapter 1.7.1 : Halogens and Halogen Compounds 145
1.7.2.1 Economic Importance 146
1.7.2.2 Starting Materials 148
I .7.2.3 Manufacturing Processes 151
I .7.2.3.1 Mercury Process 152
1.7.2.3.2 Diaphragm Process 154
1.7.2.3.3 Membrane Process 157
1.7.2.4.1 Chlorine 159
1.7.2.4.2 Sodium Hydroxide 160
References for Chapter 1.7.2: Chloralkali-Electrolysis 161
References for Chapter 1.7.3: Hydrochloric Acid - Hydrogen Chloride 165
1.7.4 Chlorine-Oxygen Compounds 166
1.7.4.1 Economic Importance 166
I .7.4.2.1 Hypochlorite 167
I .7.4.2.2 Chlorites 170
I .7.4.2.3 Chlorates 170
I .7.4.2.4 Perchlorates and Perchloric Acid 172
1.7.4.2.5 Chlorine Dioxide 173
Chloralkali Electrolysis, Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide 146

Evaluation of Mercury, Diaphragm and Membrane Processes 158
Applications of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide 159

Hydrochloric Acid - Hydrogen Chloride 162
Manufacture of Hydrogen Chloride 162
Economic Importance of Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrochloric Acid 163
Electrolysis of Hydrochloric Acid 163
Non-Electrolytic Processes for the Manufacture of Chlorine from Hydrogen Chloride 164

Manufacture of Chlorine-Oxygen Compounds I67

Applications of Chlorine-Oxygen Compounds 174

Contents XI11

References for Chapter 1.7.4: Chlorine-Oxygen Compounds 175
1.7.5.2.1 Bromine 176
1.7.5.2.2 Hydrogen Bromide I78
1.7.5.2.4 Alkali Bromates 179
References for Chapter I .7.5: Bromine and Bromine Compounds 18 1
1.7.6.2.1 Iodine 182
1.7.6.2.2 Hydrogen Iodide 183
1.7.6.2.3 Alkali Iodides 183
1.7.6.2.4 Alkali Iodates 184
1.7.6.3 Applications of Iodine and Iodine Compounds 184
References for Chapter I .7.6: Iodine and Iodine Compounds 185
Bromine and Bromine Compounds 175
Natural Deposits and Economic Importance 175
Manufacture of Bromine and Bromine Compounds 176
Alkali Bromides, Calcium Bromide, Zinc Bromide 179
Applications for Bromine and Bromine Compounds 179
Iodine and Iodine Compounds 18 1
Economic Importance I 8 I
Manufacture of Iodine and Iodine Compounds 182
Mineral Fertilizers 187
Phosphorus-Containing Fertilizers 187
Economic Importance I87
General Information 187
Importance of Superphosphate 188
Importance of Triple Superphosphate 188
Importance of Ammonium Phosphates I89
Importance of Nitrophosphates I89
Importance and Manufacture of Thermal (Sinter, Melt) and
Manufacture of Phosphorus-Containing Fertilizers I 90
Superphosphate 190
Triple Superphosphate 19 1
Ammonium Phosphates 192
Nitrophosphates 195
Basic Slag (Thomas) Phosphates 189

Nitrogen-Containing Fertilizers 196
Economic Importance 196
General Information 196
Importance of Ammonium Sulfate 197
Importance of Ammonium Nitrate 197
Importance of Urea I98
Manufacture of Nitrogen-Containing Fertilizers 199
Ammonium Sulfate 199

XIV Contents

2.2.2.2 Ammonium Nitrate 200
2.2.2.3 Urea 201
2.3 Potassium-Containing Fertilizers 205
2.3.1 Occurrence of Potassium Salts 205
2.3.3.1 Potassium Chloride 208
2.3.3.2 Potassium Sulfate 2 10
2.3.3.3 Potassium Nitrate 210
References for Chapter 2: Mineral Fertilizers 2 1 1
Economic Importance of Potassium-Containing Fertilizers 206
Manufacture of Potassium-Containing Fertilizers 208
Metals and their Compounds 213
Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals and their Compounds 213
Alkali Metals and their Compounds 2 13
General Information 213
Lithium and its Compounds 2 13
Natural Deposits and Economic Importance 2 13
Metallic Lithium 214
Lithium Compounds 2 14
Sodium and its Compounds 216
General Information 216
Metallic Sodium 217
Sodium Carbonate 2 18
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate 222
Sodium Sulfate 223
Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate 225
Sodium Borates 225
Potassium and its Compounds 227
General Information 227
Metallic Potassium 227
Potassium Hydroxide 227
Potassium Carbonate 228

References for Chapter 3.1.1: Alkali Metals and their Compounds 229
3.1.2.1 General Information 230
3.1.2.3.1 Natural Deposits 231
3.1.2.3.2 Metallic Magnesium 232
3.1.2.3.3 Magnesium Carbonate 234
3.1.2.3.4 Magnesium Oxide 235
3.1.2.3.5 Magnesium Chloride 236
3.1.2.3.6 Magnesium Sulfate 237
Alkaline Earth Metals and their Compounds 230
Beryllium and its Compounds 23 1
Magnesium and its Compounds 231

Contents XV

3.1.2.4.1 Natural Deposits 237
3.1.2.4.2 Metallic Calcium 238
3.1.2.4.3 Calcium Carbonate 238
3.1.2.4.5 Calcium Chloride 240
3.1.2.4.6 Calcium Carbide 240
3.1.2.6.2 Barium Carbonate 243
3.1.2.6.3 Barium Sulfide 245
3.1.2.6.4 Barium Sulfate 245
References for Chapter 3. I .2: Alkaline Earth Metals and their Compounds 245
Calcium and its Compounds 237
Calcium Oxide and Calcium Hydroxide 239
Strontium and its Compounds 242
Barium and its Compounds 242
Natural Deposits and Economic Importance 242
Aluminum and its Compounds 246
General Information 246
Natural Deposits 247
Metallic Aluminum 248
Economic Importance 248
Manufacture 248
Applications 249
Aluminum Oxide and Aluminum Hydroxide 250
Economic Importance 250
Manufacture 250
Applications 25 1
Aluminum Sulfate 252
Economic Importance 252
Manufacture 252
Applications 253
Aluminum Chloride 253
Economic Importance 253
Manufacture 253
Applications 254
Sodium Aluminate 254

References for Chapter 3.2: Aluminum and its Compounds 255
Chromium Compounds and Chromium 255
Chromium Compounds 255
Economic Importance 255
Raw Material: Chromite 257
Manufacture of Chromium Compounds 258
Chromite Digestion to Alkali Chromates 258
Alkali Dichromates 260
Chromium(V1) Oxide (“Chromic Acid”) 262
Chromium(II1) Oxide 264

XVI Contents
3.3.2 Metallic Chromium 266
3.3.2.1 Economic Importance 266
3.3.2.2 Manufacture of Chromium Metal 267
3.3.2.2.1 Chemical Reduction 267
3.3.2.2.2 Electrochemical Reduction of Chrome Alum 267
References for Chapter 3.3: Chromium Compounds and Chromium 268
Basic Chromium(II1) Salts (Chrome Tanning Agents) 265
Applications for Chromium Compounds 266
Electrochemical Reduction of Chromium(V1) Oxide 268
3.4.1 Elemental Silicon 269
3.4.1.2 Manufacture 270
3.4.1.3 Silicon Applications 278
3.4.2 Inorganic Silicon Compounds 279
References for Chapter 3.4: Silicon and its Inorganic Compounds 281
Silicon and its Inorganic Compounds 269
General Information and Economic Importance 269
Ferrosilicon and Metallurgical Grade Silicon 270
Electronic Grade Silicon (Semiconductor Silicon) 272
3.5.1 Manganese Compounds 282
3.5.1.1 Economic Importance 282
3.5.1.2 Raw Materials 283
3.5.1.3.1 Manganese(I1) Compounds 284
3.5.1.3.3 Manganese(1V) Oxide 286
3.5.1.3.4 Potassium Permanganate 289
3.5.1.4 Applications of Manganese Compounds 292
3.5.2 Manganese - Electrochemical Manufacture, Importance and Applications 292
References for Chapter 3.5: Manganese Compounds and Manganese 293
Manganese Compounds and Manganese 282

Manufacture of Manganese Compounds 284
Manganese(I1,III) Oxide (Mn,Od) and Manganese(II1) Oxide (Mn,O?) 286

4 Organo-Silicon Compounds 295
4.1 Industrially Important Organo-Silicon Compounds, Nomenclature 295
Industrially Important Silanes 296
Organohalosilanes 296
Industrial Important Silicon-functional Organo-Silanes 298
Organoalkoxysilanes 299
Acyloxysilanes 300
Oximino- and Aminoxy-Silanes 300
Amidosilanes, Silazanes 301
Organohydrogensilanes 30 1

Contents XVII

4.2.3 Organofunctional Silanes 302
4.2.3.1 Alkenylsilanes 302
4.2.3.2 Halo-organosilanes 303
4.2.3.3 Organoaminosilanes 303
4.2.3.4 Organomercaptosilanes, Organosulfidosilanes 304
4.2.3.5 Other Organofunctional Silanes 304
References for Chapter 4.1 and 4.2: Organo-Silicon Compounds 305
Silicones 305
Structure and Properties, Nomenclature 305
Economic Importance 306
Linear and Cyclic Polyorganosiloxanes 307
Manufacture 307
Hydrolysis 307
Methanolysis 309
Cyclization 3 10
Polymerization 310
Polycondensation 3 I2
Industrial Realization of Polymerization 3 I3
Manufacture of Branched Polysiloxanes 3 14
Industrial Silicone Products 307
Silicone Oils 307
Products Manufactured from Silicone Oils 3 16
Silicone Rubbers 3 17
Room Temperature Vulcanizable Single Component Silicone Rubbers 3 I7
Two Component Room Temperature Vulcanizable Silicone Rubbers 3 19
Hot Vulcanizable Peroxide Crosslinkable Silicone Rubbers 320
Hot Vulcanizable Addition Crosslinkable Silicone Rubbers 320
Properties of Silicone Rubber 322
Silicone Resins 322
Silicone Copolymers, Block Copolymers and Graft Copolymers 323

References for Chapters 4.3 and 4.4: Silicones 324
Inorganic Solids 325
Silicate Products 325
Glass 325
Economic Importance 325
Structure 32.5
Glass Composition 326
Glass Manufacture 329
Glass Raw Materials 329
Melting Process 33 I
Melting Furnaces 332

XVIII Contents

5.1.1.5 Forming 334
References for Chapter 5.1 .l: Glass 337
5.1.2 Alkali Silicates 338
5.1.2.2 Manufacture of Alkali Silicates 338
5.1.2.3 Applications 340
References for Chapter 5.1.2: Alkali Silicates 340
Glass Properties and Applications 336
General and Economic Importance 338
Zeolites 340
Economic Importance 340
Zeolite Types 34 1
Natural Zeolites 344
Manufacture of Synthetic Zeolites 344
From Natural Raw Materials 344
From Synthetic Raw Materials 344
Modification of Synthetic Zeolites by Ion Exchange 346
Forming of Zeolites 346
Dehydration of Zeolites 347
Applications for Zeolites 347
As Ion Exchangers 347
As an Adsorption Agent 347
For Separation Processes 348
As Catalysts 349
Miscellaneous Applications 349
References for Chapter 5.1.3: Zeolites 350
Inorganic Fibers 351
Introduction 35 1
Definitions, Manufacture and Processing 35 1
Economic Importance 352
Properties 352
Classification and Applications 354
Physiological Aspects 354
Asbestos Fibers 356
General and Economic Importance 356
Occurrence and Extraction 359
Applications of Asbestos Fibers 361
Textile Glass Fibers 364
General and Economic Importance 364
Manufacture 366
Applications 369
Optical Fibers 370
Mineral Fiber Insulating Materials 372
General Information and Economic Importance 372
Manufacture 373
Applications 377

Contents XIX

5.2.6 Carbon Fibers 377
5.2.6.2 Manufacture and Applications 380
5.2.7 Metal Fibers 384
5.2.7.2 Boron Fibers 386
5.2.8 Ceramic Reinforcing Fibers 388
5.2.8.2 Oxide Fibers 389
5.2.8.3 Non-oxide Fibers 39 1
5.2.8.4 Whiskers 394
References for Section 5.2: Inorganic Fibers 395
General Information and Economic Importance 377
Steel and Tungsten Fibers 384
General information and Economic Importance 388
Construction Materials 396
General Introduction 396
Lime 397
Economic lmportance 397
Raw Materials 398
Quicklime 398
Slaked Lime 400
Wet Slaking of Quicklime 400
Dry Slaking of Quicklime 401
Lime Hydrate from Calcium Carbide 401
Steam-Hardened Construction Materials 402
Applications of Lime 402
Cement 403
Economic Importance 403
Composition of Cements 404
Portland Cement 405
Raw Materials 405
Composition of Portland Cement Clinkers 405
Manufacture of Portland Cement 405
Applications of Portland Cement 409
Slag Cement 409
Pozzolan Cements 410
Alumina Cement 41 I
Asbestos Cement 41 I
Miscellaneous Cement Types 41 1
Processes in the Solidification of Cement 4 12
Gypsum 415
Economic Importance 4 I5
Modifications of Calcium Sulfate 416
Natural Gypsum 4 18
Natural Anhydrite 420
Fluoroanhydrite 420
Byproduct Gypsum 420

xx Contents

5.3.4.6.3 Phosphogypsum 421
5.3.6 Expanded Products 425
5.3.6.1 General lnformation 425
5.3.6.2.1 Raw Materials 425
References for Chapter 5.3: Construction Materials 43 1
Byproduct Gypsum from the Manufacture and Purification of Organic Acids 420
Byproduct Gypsum from Flue Gas Desulfurization 42 1
Processes in the Setting of Plaster 423
Coarse Ceramic Products for the Construction Industry 424
Expanded Products from Clays and Shales 425
Gas-forming Reactions in the Manufacture of
Manufacture of Expanded Products 429
Expanded Products from Glasses (Foam Glass) 430
Applications of Expanded Products 430
Expanded Products 428
Enamel 430
General Information 432
Classification of Enamels 433
Enamel Frit Manufacture 437
Raw Materials 437
Smelting of Frits 437
Enameling 438
Production of Coatable Systems 438
Coating Processes 439
Wet Application Processes 439
Dry Application Procesres 440
Stoving of Enamels 441
Applications of Enamel 442
References for Chapter 5.4: Enamel 442
Ceramics 443
General Information 443
Classification of Ceramic Products 443
General Process Steps in the Manufacture of Ceramics 444
Clay Ceramic Products 445
Composition and Raw Materials 445
Extraction and Treatment of Raw Kaolin 447
Manufacture of Clay Ceramic Batches 447
Forming Processes 448
Casting Processes 449
Plastic Forming 450
Forming by Powder Pressing 45 1
Drying Processes 452
Firing of Ceramics 452
Physical-Chemical Processes 452

Contents XXI
Firing Conditions 454
Glazes 455
Properties and Applications of Clay Ceramic Products 455
Fine Earthenware 45.5
Stoneware 456
Porcelain 456
Rapidly Fired Porcelain 457
Economic Importance of Clay Ceramic Products 458
Specialty Ceramic Products 458
Oxide Ceramics 458
General Information 458
Aluminum Oxide 460
Zirconium Oxide 46 I
Beryllium Oxide 462
Uranium Oxide and Thorium Oxide 462
Other Oxide Ceramics 463
Electro- and Magneto-Ceramics 464
Titanates 464
Ferrites 465
Refractory Ceramics 468
Definition and Classification 468
Alumina-Rich Products 470
Fireclay Products 470
Silicate Products 47 1
Basic Products 472
Specialty Refractory Products 473
Economic Importance 473
Nonoxide Ceramics 474
Economic Importance 475
Manufacturing Processes for Silicon Carbide 475
Refractory Silicon Carbide Products 477
Fine Ceramic Silicon Carbide Products 477
Fine Silicon Nitride Ceramic Products 478
Manufacture and Properties of Boron Carbide 480
Manufacture and Properties of Boron Nitride 48 1
Manufacture and Properties of Aluminum Nitride 482
References for Chapter 5.5: Ceramics 482
Metallic Hard Materials 484
General Information 484
General Manufacturing Processes and Properties of Metal Carbides 485
Carbides of the Subgroup of the IVth Group 487
Titanium Carbide 487
Zirconium Carbide and Hafnium Carbide 488
Carbides of the Subgroup of the Vth Group 488
Vanadium Carbide 488

XXII Contents
5.6.5.1 Chromium Carbide 489
5.6.5.2 Molybdenum Carbide 489
5.6.5.3 Tungsten Carbide 489
5.6.7 Metal Nitrides 492
5.6.8 Metdl Borides 493
5.6.9 Metal Silicides 494
References for Chapter 5.6: Metallic Hard Materials 495
Niobium Carbide and Tantalum Carbide 488
Carbides of the Subgroup of the VIth Group 489
Cemented Carbides Based on Tungsten Carbide 490
Thorium Carbide and Uranium Carbide 491
Carbon Modifications 496
Introduction 496
Diamond 496
Economic Importance 496
Mining of Natural Diamonds 497
Manufacture of Synthetic Diamonds 498
Properties and Applications 500
Natural Graphite 500
Economic Importance 500
Natural Deposits and Mining 502
Properties and Applications 503
Large Scale Production of Synthetic Carbon and Synthetic Graphite 505
Economic Importance 505
General Information about Manufacture 505
Manufacture of Synthetic Carbon 506
Raw Materials 506
Processing 507
Densification and Forming 507
Carbonization 508
Graphitization of Synthetic Carbon 509
General Information 509
Acheson Process 509
Castner Process 5 10
Other Graphitization Processes 5 10
Purification Graphitization 5 1 1
Impregnation and Processing of Carbon and Graphite Articles 5 1 1
Properties and Applications 5 12
Special Types of Carbon and Graphite 5 13
Pyrolytic Carbon and Pyrolytic Graphite 5 13
Glassy Carbon and Foamed Carbon 5 I5
Graphite Foils and Membranes 5 16
Carbon Black 5 17
Economic Importance 5 18
Manufacture 5 I8

Contents XXIII

5.7.6.2.1 General Information 51 8
5.7.6.2.4 Posttreatment 523
5.7.6.3 Properties and Applications 524
5.7.7 Activated Carbon 527
5.7.7.1 Economic Importance 527
5.7.7.2 Manufacture 528
5.7.7.2.1 General Information 8
References for Chapter 5.7: Carbon Modifications 534
Pyrolysis Processes in the Presence of Oxygen 519
Pyrolysis Processes in the Absence of Oxygen 522

Activated Carbon by “Chemical Activation” 529
Activated Carbon by “Gas Activation” 530
Reactivation and Regeneration of Used Activated Carbon 532
Applications of Activated Carbon 532
Fillers 535
General Information 535
Economic Importance 536
Natural Fillers 536
Silicon-Based Fillers 536
Other Natural Fibers 538
Beneficiation of Natural Fillers 538
Synthetic Fillers 539
Silicas and Silicates 539
Pyrogenic Silicas 539
Wet Chemically Manufactured Silicas and Silicates 540
Posttreatment of Silicas 541
Glasses 542
Cristobalite 542
Aluminum Hydroxide 542
Carbonates 543
Sulfates 544
Other Synthetic Fillers 545
Properties and Applications 545
References for Chapter 5.8: Fillers 546
Inorganic Pigments 548
General Information and Economic Importance 548
White Pigments 552
General Information 552
Titanium Dioxide Pigments 553
Economic Importance 553
Raw Materials for Ti02 Pigments 553
Manufacturing Processes for TiOz Pigments 555
Applications for Ti02 Pigments 558
Lithopone and Zinc Sulfide Pigments 559

XXIV Contents

Zinc Oxide White Pigments 560
Manufacture 560
Applications 561
Colored Pigments 561
Iron Oxide Pigments 561
Natural Iron Oxide Pigments 561
Synthetic Iron Oxide Pigments 563
Chromium(II1) Oxide Pigments 567
Manufacture 567
Properties and Applications of Chromium(II1) Oxide 569
Chromate and Molybdate Pigments 570
Mixed-Metal Oxide Pigments and Ceramic Colorants 571
Cadmium Pigments 573
Cyanide Iron Blue Pigments 575
Ultramarine Pigments 577
Corrosion Protection Pigments 578
Luster Pigments 580
Metal Effect Pigments 580
Nacreous Pigments 581
Interference Pigments 581
Luminescent Pigments 581
Magnetic Pigments 582
General Information and Properties 582
Manufacture of Magnetic Pigments 584
References for Chapter 5.9: Inorganic Pigments 586
Nuclear Fuel Cycle 587
Economic Importance of Nuclear Energy 587
General Information about the Nuclear Fuel Cycle 591
Availability of Uranium 592
Nuclear Reactor Types 594
General Information 594
Light-water Reactors 594
Boiling Water Reactors 594
Pressurized Water Reactors 595
Graphite-Moderated Reactors 595
Gas-Cooled 595
Light-Water Cooled 597
Heavy-Water Reactors 597
Fast Breeder Reactors 598

Contents XXV

Nuclear Fuel Production 599
Production of Uranium Concentrates (“Yellow Cake”) 600
Uranium from Uranium Ores 600
Leaching Processes 600
Separation of Uranium from the Leaching Solutions 602
Manufacture of Marketable Uranium Compounds (“Yellow Cake”) 603
Uranium from Phosphate Ores and Wet Phosphoric Acid 605
Uranium from Seawater 606
Conversion of Uranium Concentrates to Uranium Hexafluoride 607
General Information 607
Wet Process for Uranium(V1) Fluoride Manufacture 607
Dry Process for Uranium(V1) Fluoride Manufacture 609
*%-Enrichment 609
Reconversion of Uranium(V1) Fluoride into Nuclear Fuel 6 I0
Into Uranium(1V) Oxide 610
General Information 610
Uranium(1V) Oxide by Wet Processes 61 1
Uranium(1V) Oxide by the Dry (IDR) Process 6 I2
Manufacture of Uranium(1V) Oxide Pellets 61 2
Other Uranium Nuclear Fuels 6 13
Fuel Element Manufacture 614
Disposal of Waste from Nuclear Power Stations 615
General Information 6 15
Stages in Nuclear Waste Disposal 617
Interim Storage of Spent Fuel Elements 6 17
Reprocessing of Spent Fuel Elements 617
Further Processing of Uranium and Plutonium Solutions 620
Treatment of Radioactive Waste 621
Permanent Storage of Radioactive Waste 623
References for Chapter 6: Nuclear Fuel Cycle 624
Company Abbreviations Index 627
Subject Index 63
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