Inorganic Chemistry by Rajni Garg

Inorganic Chemistry by Rajni Garg

Rajni Garg & Randhir Singh
Published in: McGraw Hill Education
Release Year: 2015
ISBN: 978-93-83286-90-4
Pages: 1677
Edition: First Edition
File Size: 40 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English

Description of Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic chemistry is a dynamic and fascinating field of chemistry growing at a rapid pace in both research and theoretical aspects. The lusty impact of this field has introduced the subject as an essential part of the curricula of all universities. The first edition of Inorganic Chemistry aims to provide the essentials of the subject in an easy and understandable manner. The book is an outcome of the teaching and research experience of the authors so that students can learn concept formulation instead of just rote memorization. 
The book is primarily aimed for students at undergraduate (BSc pass and honors) and postgraduate (MSc pass and honors) levels taking inorganic chemistry as a special subject for a one-semester or a full-year course.
Inorganic Chemistry book is designed to provide concise information about various aspects of inorganic chemistry that can also be used by students from various fields involving inorganic compounds, such as environmental science, polymer science, industrial chemistry, bioinorganic chemistry, and metallurgy. However, they can skip the irrelevant topics as per their field. Inorganic Chemistry book will also be a source of reference for the students doing BTech courses or taking inorganic chemistry as an ancillary subject. It will also be helpful for the challenging requirements of various competitive exams such as CSIR, SLET, and GATE.
The content of the Inorganic Chemistry book has been framed in an easy-to-understand language that would generate interest in the subject. All the chapters provide descriptive information and are enriched with illustrations, comprehensible articles, solved examples, both numerical as well as theoretical, to satisfy the needs of students. At the end of each chapter, a concise summary has been given for quick revision before examinations. The chapters have been enriched with exercises comprising theory-based general questions and objective-type questions to provide an insight into the examination pattern. The book introduces descriptive and illustrative information about structure of atoms and nuclei, radioactivity, chemical bonding, molecular symmetry, structure of solids, redox reactions, non-aqueous solvents, acids and bases, extraction of elements, Periodic Table, chemistry of known elements, coordination chemistry, organometallics, inorganic polymers, bioinorganic chemistry, environmental chemistry and analytical chemistry. Although it is very difficult to include such a vast subject in a single book, a reasonable attempt has been made to cover a variety of important topics. We hope the Inorganic Chemistry book will prove very helpful in providing the complex concepts of inorganic chemistry in an easy way.

Content of Inorganic Chemistry

1. Structure of Atom
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Rutherford Scattering Experiment
1.3 Planck’s Quantum Theory of Radiation
1.4 Photoelectric Effect
1.5 Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen
1.6 Bohr’s Model of the Atom
1.7 Sommerfeld’s Extension of Bohr’s Atomic Model
1.8 Dual Character of Matter
1.9 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
1.10 Compton Effect
1.11 Schrodinger Wave Equation
1.12 Quantum Numbers
1.13 Probability Distribution Curves
1.14 Rules for Filling of Orbitals and Electronic Configuration of
Solved Examples
2. Nuclear Chemistry
2.1 Nucleus
2.2 Composition of the Nucleus
2.3 Nuclear Forces

2.4 Nuclear Stability
2.5 Nuclear Models
2.6 Nuclear Reactions
2.7 Radioactivity
2.8 Radioactive Disintegration
2.9 Law of Successive Disintegration: Radioactive Equilibrium
2.10 Soddy-Fajans and Russel Group Displacement Law
2.11 Artificial Radioactivity
2.12 Applications of Radioactive Isotopes
Solved Examples
3. Chemical Bonding
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Ionic Bond or Electrovalent Bond
3.3 Covalent Bond (Lewis-Langmuir Concept)
3.4 Dipole Moment
3.5 Coordinate Covalent Bond or Dative Bond
3.6 Van der Waals’ Forces or Intermolecular Forces
3.7 Hydrogen Bond
3.8 Orbital Overlap Theory
3.9 Molecular Orbital Theory
3.10 Metallic Bond
3.11 Hybridisation
3.12 Sidgwick – Powell Theory
3.13 Valence Shell Electron-pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR theory)
3.14 Shapes of Some Common Molecules
3.15 Linnett Double Quartet Theory (LDQ Theory)—Modification of
Lewis Longmuir Octet Theory
3.16 Resonance

Solved Examples

4. Molecular Symmetry
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Symmetry Element
4.3 Multiplication of Symmetry Operations
4.4 Mathematical Group
4.5 Matrix Representation of Symmetry Operations
4.6 Terms Symbols of Diatomic Molecules
4.7 Applications of Group Theory
4.8 Structure of Solids
Solved Examples
5. Redox Reactions
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Electrochemical Cell
5.3 Kinetics of Redox Reactions
5.4 Redox Reactions in Aqueous Systems
5.5 Diagrammatic Representation of Potential Data
Solved Examples

6. Non-aqueous Solvents
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Classification of Solvents
6.3 Liquid Ammonia
6.4 Liquid Sulphur Dioxide
6.5 Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride
6.6 Anhydrous Sulphuric Acid

6.7 Acetic Acid
6.8 Liquid Dinitrogen Tetroxide, N2O4
6.9 Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids
6.10 Concept of Acid-Base
6.11 Acid Strength Behaviour in the Periodic Table
Solved Examples

7. Extraction of Elements
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Occurrence of Elements
7.3 Metallurgy
7.4 Purification of Impure Metals or Refining
7.5 Thermodynamics of the Metallurgy: Ellingham Diagram
Solved Examples

8. Periodic Table and Periodic Properties
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Mendeleev's Periodic Table
8.3 Modern Periodic Law and Periodicity
8.4 Long form of Periodic Table
8.5 Periodic Properties
8.6 Shielding or Screening Effect
Solved Examples

9. Hydrogen and its Compounds
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table

9.3 Occurrence and Production of Hydrogen
9.4 Physical Properties of Hydrogen
9.5 Chemical Properties of Hydrogen
9.6 Uses of Hydrogen
9.7 Different Forms of Hydrogen
9.8 Spin Isomers of Hydrogen
9.9 Isotopes of Hydrogen
9.10 Compounds of Hydrogen
9.11 Water H2O
9.12 Heavy Water (D2O)
Solved Examples

10. Chemistry of Group 1 Elements
10.1 Introduction
10.2 General Characteristics of Group I Elements
10.3 Chemical Properties of Alkali Metals
10.4 Lithium (Li)
10.5 Sodium (Na)
10.6 Potassium (K)
10.7 Rubidium, Caesium and Francium
Solved Examples

11. Chemistry of Group 2 Elements
11.1 Introduction
11.2 General Characteristics of Group 2 Elements
11.3 Chemical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metals
11.4 Beryllium (Be)
11.5 Magnesium (Mg)
11.6 Calcium (Ca)

11.7 Strontium (Sr)
11.8 Barium (Ba)
11.9 Radium (Ra)
11.10 Portland Cement
Solved Examples

12. Chemistry of Group 13 Elements
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Electronic Structure
12.3 General Physical Properties
12.4 Diagonal Relationship between Boron and Silicon
12.5 Chemical Properties of Group 13 Elements
12.6 Boron
12.7 Aluminum (Al)
12.8 Gallium (Ga)
12.9 Indium and Thallium (Th)
12.10 Comparision of Compounds of Group 13 Elements
Solved Examples

13. Chemistry of Group 14 Elements
13.1 Introduction
13.2 General Properties of Group 14 Elements
13.3 Anomalous Behaviour of Carbon
13.4 Carbon and Silicon—Comparison of Properties
13.5 Carbon
13.6 Silicon (Si)
13.7 Germanium (Ge)
13.8 Tin (Sn)
13.9 Lead (Pb)

13.10 Comparative Account of Compounds of Group 14 Elements
Solved Examples

14. Chemistry of Group 15 Elements
14.1 Introduction 14.1
14.2 General Properties of Group 15 Elements
14.3 Chemical Properties of Group 15 Elements
14.4 Nitrogen (N)
14.5 Phosphorus (P)
14.6 Arsenic (As)
14.7 Antimony (Sb)
14.8 Bismuth (Bi)
Solved Examples

15. Chemistry of Group 16 Elements
15.1 Introduction
15.2 General Properties of Group 16 Elements
15.3 Anomalous Behaviour of Oxygen
15.4 Oxygen (O2
15.5 Sulphur (S2
15.6 Selenium (Se)
15.7 Tellurium (Te)
15.8 Polonium (Po)
15.9 Comparative Account of Compounds of Group 16 Elements
Solved Examples

16. Chemistry of Group 17 Elements

16.1 Introduction
16.2 General Characterisation
16.3 Chemical Properties
16.4 Fluorine (F)
16.5 Chlorine (Cl)
16.6 Bromine (Br)
16.7 Iodine (I)
16.8 Astatine (At)
16.9 Interhalogen Compounds
16.10 Polyhalides
16.11 Pseudohalogens and Pseudohalides
Solved Examples

17. Chemistry of Group 18 Elements
17.1 Introduction
17.2 History and Discovery
17.3 Occurrence and Isolation of Noble Gases
17.4 Uses of Noble Gases
17.5 Physical Properties
17.6 Chemical Properties
17.7 Chemistry of Xenon (Xe)
17.8 Compounds of Krypton (Krf2
17.9 Compounds of Radon (Rn)
Solved Examples

18. Chemistry of d-block Elements
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Classification of d-block Elements
18.3 General Characteristic of d-block Elements

Solved Examples

19. Chemistry of Elements of 3d Series
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Scandium (Sc)
19.3 Titanium (Ti)
19.4 Vanadium (V2
19.5 Chromium (Cr)
19.6 Manganese (Mn)
19.7 Iron (Fe)
19.8 Cobalt (Co)
19.9 Nickel (Ni)
19.10 Copper (Cu)
19.11 Zinc (Zn)
Solved Examples

20. Chemistry of Elements of 4d Series
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Yttrium (Y)
20.3 Zirconium (Zr)
20.4 Niobium (Nb)
20.5 Molybdenum (Mo)
20.6 Technetium (Tc)
20.7 Ruthenium (Ru)
20.8 Rhodium (Rh)
20.9 Palladium (Pd)
20.10 Silver (Ag)
20.11 Cadmium (Cd)

Solved Examples

21. Chemistry of 5d Series
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Hafnium (HF)
21.3 Tantalum (Ta)
21.4 Tungsten (W)
21.5 Rhenium (Re)
21.6 Osmium (Os)
21.7 Iridium (Ir)
21.8 Platinum (Pt)
21.9 Gold (Au)
21.10 Mercury (Hg)
Solved Examples

22. Chemistry of Lanthanides and Actinides
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Lanthanides
22.3 Lanthanum (La)
22.4 Actinides
22.5 Thorium (Th)
22.6 Uranium (U)
22.7 Plutonium (Pu)
Solved Examples

23. Coordination Compounds-I Basics Concepts:
Nomenclature and Stereochemistry
23.1 Introduction

23.2 Important Terms
23.3 Rules for Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
23.4 Rules for Formula of the Coordination Compounds
23.5 Classification of Complexes
23.6 Isomerism
Solved Examples

24. Coordination Compounds— II Theories of Bonding
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Techniques for Study of Complexes
24.3 Theories of Coordination
24.4 Crystal Field Theory (CFT)
24.5 The Ligand Field Theory-Molecular Orbital Theory
Solved Examples

25. Coordination Compounds III: Quantitative Basis of
Crystal Field Theory
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Determination of Octahedral Crystal Field Potential
25.3 Determination of Tetragonal Crystal Field Potential
25.4 Determination of Square Planar Crystal-Field Potential
25.5 Determination of Tetrahedral Crystal-Field Potential
25.6 Determination of Cubic Crystal-Field Potential
25.7 Structural and Thermodynamic Effects of Splitting of Orbitals
25.8 Jahn-Teller Effect (Distortion of Geometry)
Solved Examples

26. Coordination Complexes IV: Spectroscopic and Magnetic
Properties of Coordination Compounds
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Coupling Schemes
26.3 Energy Terms and the Energy States
26.4 Electronic Spectra of Transition-Metal Compounds
26.5 Orgel Diagrams
26.6 Racah Parameters
26.7 Terms Correlation Diagrams under the Effect of Weak and Strong
Field Effects
26.8 Tanabe-Sugano Diagrams (T-S Diagram)
26.9 Charge-Transfer Transitions
26.10 Types of Magnetism
Solved Examples

27. Coordination Compounds – λ The Reaction Mechanisms
of Transition-Metal Complexes
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Ligand-substitution Reactions
27.3 Oxidation-reduction Reactions in Coordination Compounds
Solved Examples

28. Complexes of π-Acceptor Ligands
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Complexes of Carbonyls
28.3 Complexes of Nitric Oxide
28.4 Complexes of Phosphines
28.5 Complexes of Cyanide and Isocyanide Ligands

Solved Examples

29. Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Organometallic Compounds of Alkali Metals
29.3 Organometallic Compounds of Alkaline Earth Metals
29.4 Organometallics of Group 13 Elements
29.5 Organometallics of Group 14 Elements
29.6 Organometallics of Group 15 Elements
29.7 Organometallic Compounds of Transition Elements
Solved Examples
30. Metal Clusters
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Polynuclear Compounds of Oxygen and other Chalcogens
30.3 Clusters of p-block Elements other than Chalcogens
30.4 Low-valent Metal Clusters
30.5 High-Valent Metal Clusters or Halide-type Clusters
Solved Examples

31. Inorganic Nomenclature
31.1 Introduction
31.2 General Nomenclature and Formulae of Compounds
Solved Examples

32. Inorganic Polymers
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Classification of Inorganic Polymers

32.3 General Characteristics of Inorganic Polymers
32.4 Important Inorganic Polymers

33. Bioinorganic Chemistry
33.1 Introduction
33.2 Metalloporphyrins
33.3 Cytochromes
33.4 Peroxidases (Molar Mass ~40,000)
33.5 Catalases
33.6 Ferredoxins
33.7 Metallo-enzymes
33.8 Biological Nitrogen Fixation
33.9 Na-K pump
Solved Examples
34. Pollution
34.1 Introduction
34.2 Air Pollution
34.3 Water Pollution
34.4 Soil Pollution

35. Analytical Chemistry
35.1 Errors
35.2 Detection and Minimisation of Errors
35.3 Precision
35.4 Ways of Expressing Precision
35.5 Analysis of Data by Using Statistical Techniques
35.6 Detecting Outliers

35.7 Significance Tests
35.8 Significant Figures
35.9 Expressing Error or Accuracy of a Measurement
35.10 Error Propagation in Final Results
35.11 Volumetric Analysis
35.12 Preparation of Standard Solution
35.13 Volumetric Methods
Solved Examples

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