Electro-Optics Handbook

Electro-Optics Handbook


Author:
Ronald W. Waynant & Marwood N. Ediger
Published in: McGraw-Hill
Release Year: 2000
ISBN: 0-07-068716-1
Pages: 1000
Edition: Second Edition
File Size: 7 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Electro-Optics Handbook


Our concept for a new handbook on electro-optics integrates sources, materials, detectors and ongoing applications. The field of electro-optics now encompasses both incoherent optical sources and lasers that operate from the millimeter wavelength region to the x-ray region. In Electro-Optics Handbook, we provide coverage of the most important laser sources in this wavelength range. Having chosen a broad range of wavelengths from our sources, we then define the properties of the materials through which these sources might travel. From there we consider the detectors that might be used to observe them. When all the components have been covered, we consider the applications for which electro-optical systems can be used.
The applications for electro-optics systems is growing at a phenomenal rate and will most likely do so for the next fifty years or more. Applications range from the astronomical to the microscopic. Laser systems can track the moon and detect small quantities of atmospheric pollution. Laser beams can trap and suspend tiny bacteria and help measure their mechanical properties. They can be used to clip sections of DNA. The applications that we have included in the Electro-Optics Handbook are only the beginning of applications for this field.
Electro-Optics Handbook is intended as a reference book. It can be used as a starting place to learn more about sources, materials, detectors and their use and applications. Most chapters have a considerable list of references to original research articles, or else refer to books that contain such lists of references. Liberal use is made of tables of data and illustrations that clarify the text. The authors are all experts in their fields.
We make no statement that Electro-Optics Handbook is complete although it was our goal to work toward complete coverage of this field. It is a dynamic field continually advancing and changing. We hope to follow these changes and to strive for further completeness in future editions. We believe electro-optics will be part of a new field with new ways of transferring knowledge. We hope to use these new fields to find additional ways to present data and knowledge that will be even more comprehensive.
We are indebted to Daniel Gonneau of McGraw-Hill for suggesting this project and then providing the encouragement and motivation to see it through. As editors, we are grateful to the authors who made great sacrifices to complete their contributions and who made our job quite pleasant. We hope that references are made to the authors and their sections because it is with these authors that the knowledge presented here really resides. We would be remiss not to mention Paul Sobel for his help and encouragement during the finishing stages of Electro-Optics Handbook and to thank Eve Protic for her help during the many stages of production.
It’s often difficult to predict which areas of a field will become rejuvenated and grow rapidly or spin-off to fit with another to form something new. The field of electro-optics is also unpredictable, but currently, it has numerous forces acting on it. First is the development of new optical sources such as ultrafast lasers and fiber lasers to compete with semiconductor devices for pumping and lasing. The vast riches that can be obtained by work outside the visible seem to be opening up. Sources and fibers for telecommunications are moving ahead rapidly and new display devices may eventually bring an end to the vacuum tube cathode-ray tubes. We believe that the material in this book will find an interested audience for many years.
This second edition of the Electro-Optics Handbook both updates individual chapters where needed and adds additional chapters where new fields have emerged. Electro-optics remain a dynamic area and that will continue and broaden into many new areas. Our thanks to Steve Chapman for his help getting this edition in progress and to Marcia Patchan and Petra Captain for much of the work to move it toward composition.

Content of Electro-Optics Handbook



Chapter 1. Introduction to Electro-Optics Ronald W. Waynant andMarwood N. Ediger 1.1


1.1 Introduction / 1.1
1.2 Types of Light Sources / 1.1
1.3 Materials / 1.4
1.4 Detectors / 1.5
1.5 Current Applications / 1.6
1.6 References / 1.7

Chapter 2. Noncoherent Sources Sharon Miller 2.1


2.1 Introduction / 2.1
2.2 Definition of Terms / 2.1
2.3 Characteristics / 2.6
2.4 Measurements and Calibration / 2.10
2.5 Sources of Noncoherent Optical Radiation / 2.21
2.6 References / 2.35

Chapter 3. Ultraviolet, Vacuum-Ultraviolet, and X-Ray LasersRoland Sauerbrey 3.1


3.1 Lasers in the Electromagnetic Spectrum / 3.1
3.2 Principles of Short-Wavelength Laser Operation / 3.4
3.3 Ultraviolet and Vacuum Ultraviolet Lasers / 3.11
3.4 X-Ray Lasers and Gamma-Ray Lasers / 3.36
3.5 References / 3.43

Chapter 4. Visible Lasers William T. Silfvast 4.1


4.1 Introduction / 4.1
4.2 Visible Lasers in Gaseous Media / 4.2
4.3 Visible Lasers In Liquid Media—Organic Dye Lasers / 4.14
4.4 Visible Lasers in Solid Materials / 4.18
4.5 References / 4.21

Chapter 5. Solid-State Lasers Georg F. Albrecht and Stephen A. Payne 5.1


5.1 Introduction / 5.1
5.2 Solid-State Laser Devices / 5.2
5.3 Solid-State Laser Materials / 5.34
5.4 Future Directions / 5.56
5.5 References / 5.57

Chapter 6. Semiconductor Lasers James J. Coleman 6.1


6.1 Compound Semiconductors and Alloys / 6.1
6.2 Energy Band Structure / 6.3
6.3 Heterostructures / 6.6
6.4 Double Heterostructure Laser / 6.7
6.5 Stripe Geometry Lasers / 6.10
6.6 Index-Guided Stripe Geometry Lasers / 6.12
6.7 Materials Growth / 6.13
6.8 Quantum Well Heterostructure Lasers / 6.14
6.9 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers / 6.17
6.10 Laser Arrays / 6.18
6.11 Modulation of Laser Diodes / 6.21
6.12 Reliability / 6.23
6.13 References / 6.25

Chapter 7. Infrared Gas Lasers Michael Ivanco and Paul A. Rochefort 7.1


7.1 Introduction / 7.1
7.2 Gas Laser Theory / 7.1
7.3 Specific Gas Lasers / 7.12
7.4 Conclusions / 7.30
7.5 References / 7.30

Chapter 8. Free-Electron Lasers John A. Pasour 8.1


8.1 Introduction / 8.1
8.2 FEL Theory / 8.3
8.3 FEL Components / 8.8
8.4 FEL Devices / 8.14
8.5 Future Directions / 8.17
8.6 Conclusions / 8.20
8.7 References / 8.20

Chapter 9. Ultrashort Optical Pulses: Sources and Techniques Li Yan,P.-T. Ho, and Chi. H. Lee 9.1


9.1 Principles of Ultrashort Pulse Generation / 9.1
9.2 Methods of Generation / 9.5
9.3 Ultrashort Pulse Laser Systems / 9.18
9.4 Methods of Pulse Width Measurements / 9.26
9.5 Conclusions / 9.31
9.6 References / 9.32

Chapter 10. Optical Materials—UV, VUV Jack C. Rife 10.1


10.1 Fundamental Physical Properties / 10.3
10.2 Transmissive UV Optics / 10.7
10.3 Reflective UV Optics / 10.16
10.4 Damage and Durability / 10.26
10.5 Fabrication / 10.31
10.6 References / 10.37

Chapter 11. Optical Materials: Visible and Infrared W. J. Tropf, T. J. Harris,and M. E. Thomas 11.1


11.1 Introduction / 11.1
11.2 Types of Materials / 11.1
11.3 Applications / 11.2
11.4 Material Properties / 11.5
11.5 Property Data Tables / 11.9
11.6 References / 11.71

Chapter 12. Optical Fibers Carlton M. Truesdale 12.1


12.1 Theory of Fiber Transmission / 12.1
12.2 Materials for the Fabrication of Optical Fiber / 12.10
12.3 Fabrication Methods / 12.12
12.4 Fiber Losses / 12.16
12.5 Pulse Broadening / 12.19
12.6 References / 12.26

Chapter 13. Nonlinear Optics Gary L. Wood and Edward J. Sharp 13.1


13.1 Introduction / 13.1
13.2 Linear Optics: The Harmonic Potential Well / 13.1
13.3 Nonlinear Optics: The Anharmonic Potential Well / 13.4
13.4 Second-Order Nonlinearities:  / 13.7
13.5 The Third-Order Susceptibilities:  / 13.9
13.6 Propagation Through Nonlinear Materials / 13.12
13.7 Acknowledgments / 13.27
13.8 References / 13.27

Chapter 14. Phase Conjugation Gary L. Wood 14.1


14.1 Phase Conjugation: What It Is / 14.1
14.2 Phase Conjugation: How to Generate It / 14.5
14.3 Applications / 14.30
14.4 References / 14.34

Chapter 15. Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detectors George R. Carruthers 15.1


15.1 Overview of Ultraviolet and X-Ray Detection Principles / 15.1
15.2 Photographic Film / 15.1
15.3 Nonimaging Photoionization Detectors / 15.2
15.4 Imaging Proportional Counters / 15.7
15.5 Photoemissive Detectors / 15.9
15.6 Solid-State Detectors / 15.27
15.7 Scintillation Detectors / 15.34
15.8 References / 15.35

Chapter 16. Visible Detectors Suzanne C. Stotlar 16.1


16.1 Introduction / 16.1
16.2 The Human Eye as a Detector / 16.3
16.3 Photographic Film / 16.6
16.4 Photoelectric Detectors / 16.6
16.5 Thermal Detectors / 16.15
16.6 Other Detectors / 16.19
16.7 Detection Systems and Selection Guide / 16.19
16.8 References and Further Reading / 16.21

Chapter 17. Infrared Detectors Suzanne C. Stotlar 17.1


17.1 Introduction / 17.1
17.2 Photographic Film / 17.1
17.3 Photoelectric Detectors / 17.2
17.4 Thermal Detectors / 17.13
17.5 Other Detectors / 17.21
17.6 Detection Systems and Selection Guide / 17.21
17.7 References and Further Reading / 17.23

Chapter 18. Imaging Detectors Frederick A. Rosell 18.1


18.1 Introduction / 18.1
18.2 Photosurfaces / 18.2
18.3 Imaging Tubes / 18.5
18.4 Solid-State Imaging Devices / 18.10
18.5 Imaging System Performance Model / 18.13
18.6 Modulation Transfer Functions / 18.19
18.7 Applications / 18.22
18.8 References / 18.23

Chapter 19. Holography Tung H. Jeong 19.1


19.1 Introduction / 19.1
19.2 Theory of Holographic Imaging / 19.1
19.3 Volume Holograms—A Graphic Model / 19.6
19.4 Material Requirements / 19.9
19.5 General Procedures / 19.12
19.6 Current Applications / 19.13
19.7 References / 19.15

Chapter 20. Laser Spectroscopy and Photochemistry G. Rodriguez,S. B. Kim, and J. G. Eden 20.1


20.1 Introduction / 20.1
20.2 Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy / 20.3
20.3 Photoionization and Photoelectron Spectroscopy / 20.12
20.4 Multiphoton Spectroscopy / 20.21
20.5 Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy / 20.24
20.6 Photochemistry / 20.39
20.7 Concluding Comments / 20.45
20.8 Acknowledgments / 20.46
20.9 References / 20.46

Chapter 21. Fiber-Optic Sensors Charles M. Davis and Clarence J. Zarobila 21.1


21.1 Introduction / 21.1
21.2 Fiber-Optic Sensor Transduction / 21.1
21.3 Fiber-Optic Sensor Components / 21.9
21.4 Temperature Sensors / 21.13
21.5 Static and Dynamic Pressure Sensors / 21.15
21.6 Accelerometers / 21.19
21.7 Rate-of-Rotation Sensors / 21.21
21.8 Magnetic/Electric Field Sensors / 21.22
21.9 References / 21.25

Chapter 22. High-Resolution Lithography for OptoelectronicsMartin Peckerar, P.-T. Ho, and Y. J. Chen 22.1


22.1 Introduction / 22.1
22.2 Fundamentals of Lithography / 22.2
22.3 Lithographic Techniques Useful In Optoelectronic Device Fabrication / 22.6
22.4 Examples / 22.22
22.5 Concluding Remarks / 22.33
22.6 Acknowledgments / 22.34
22.7 References / 22.34

Chapter 23. Laser Safety in the Research and Development EnvironmentDavid H. Sliney 23.1


23.1 Introduction / 23.1
23.2 Biological Effects / 23.2
23.3 Safety Standards / 23.4
23.4 Risk of Exposure / 23.4
23.5 Laser Hazard Classification / 23.7
23.6 Laser Hazard Assessment / 23.12
23.7 Laser System Safety / 23.13
23.8 The Safe Industrial Laser Laboratory / 23.14
23.9 Laser Eye Protection / 23.16
23.10 Laser Accidents / 23.23
23.11 Electrical Hazards / 23.24
23.12 Visitors and Observers / 23.24
23.13 Delayed Effects and Future Considerations / 23.24
23.14 Conclusions and General Guidelines / 23.25
23.15 References / 23.26

Chapter 24. Lasers in Medicine Ashley J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert 24.1


24.1 Introduction / 24.1
24.2 Optical-Thermal Interactions / 24.3
24.3 Medial Applications / 24.17
24.4 Ablation / 24.23
24.5 Photochemical Interactions / 24.26
24.6 Photoacoustic Mechanisms / 24.27
24.7 Future Directions / 24.28
24.8 References / 24.29

Chapter 25. Material Processing Applications of Lasers James T. Luxon 25.1


25.1 Material Processing Lasers / 25.1
25.2 Laser Characteristics For Material Processing: Advantages and
Disadvantages / 25.4
25.3 Laser Surface Modification / 25.6
25.4 Welding / 25.8
25.5 Cutting and Drilling / 25.11
25.6 Marking / 25.12
25.7 Microelectronics Applications / 25.13
25.8 Bibliography / 25.14

Chapter 26. Optical Integrated Circuits Hiroshi Nishihara, Masamitsu Haruna, and Toshiaki Suhara 26.1


26.1 Features of Optical Integrated Circuits / 26.1
26.2 Waveguide Theory, Design, and Fabrication / 26.1
26.3 Grating Components For Optical Integrated Circuits / 26.9
26.4 Passive Waveguide Devices / 26.17
26.5 Functional Waveguide Devices / 26.24
26.6 Examples of Optical Integrated Circuits / 26.31
26.7 References / 26.35

Chapter 27. Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits Osamu Wada 27.1


27.1 Introduction / 27.1
27.2 Categories and Features / 27.1
27.3 Materials, Basic Devices and Integration Techniques / 27.3
27.4 Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits / 27.15
27.5 System Applications / 27.27
27.6 Summary / 27.33
27.7 References / 27.33

Chapter 28. Optical Amplifiers Beth A. Koelbl 28.1


28.1 Introduction / 28.1
28.2 Optical Fiber Amplifiers / 28.1
28.3 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers / 28.7
28.4 Planar Waveguide Amplifiers / 28.8
28.5 Performance Parameters / 28.8
28.6 Applications / 28.14
28.7 Conclusions / 28.15
28.8 References / 28.15

Chapter 29. High-Speed Semiconductor Lasers and Photodetectors


Thomas Liljeberg and John E. Bowers 29.1
29.1 High-Speed Lasers / 29.1
29.2 High-Speed Laser Structures / 29.4
29.3 High-Speed Photodetectors / 29.7
29.4 Summary / 29.12
29.5 References / 29.13
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