Food Packaging Principles and Practice

Food Packaging
 
Author:
Robertson, Gordon L.
Publisher: CRC Press
Year:2013
ISBN No:
978-1-4398-6242-1
Pages: 696
Edition: Third Edition
File Size: 8 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English


Description of Food Packaging Principles and Practice


In this food packaging Principles and Practice book that warrants a third edition. This edition has been substantially rewritten, updated and extended to include the many developments in food packaging that have taken place since the second edition was published.
Having used the second edition as the course notes for workshops attended by nearly 600 people around the world, I have gained a good appreciation of which areas work well and which are in need of greater clarification and/or amplification. As well, all the references have been updated and now number more than 1000, of which almost two-thirds have been published since 2005. There is also a 64% increase in the number of figures.



Content of Food Packaging Principles and Practice



Chapter 1  Introduction to Food Packaging ...1
1.1  Introduction ...1
1.2  Definitions .1
1.3  Functions of Packaging .2
1.3.1  Containment .2
1.3.2  Protection .3
1.3.3  Convenience .3
1.3.4  Communication 4
1.4  Package Environments ..4
1.4.1  Physical Environment ...4
1.4.2  Ambient Environment ..5
1.4.3  Human Environment 5
1.5  Functions/Environment Grid .5
1.6  Packaging Innovation 6
1.7  Finding Information ..8
References 8

Chapter 2  Structure and Related Properties of Plastic Polymers 11
2.1  Introduction .11
2.2  History .11
2.3  Factors Influencing Polymer Structures and Related Properties .12
2.3.1  Molecular Structure13
2.3.1.1  Classification of Polymers ..13
2.3.1.2  Polymerization Processes ...14
2.3.2  Molecular Weight ...15
2.3.3  Density16
2.3.4  Crystallinity16
2.3.5  Physical Transitions in Polymers 17
2.3.6  Chemical Structure 20
2.3.6.1  Polyolefins ...20
2.3.6.2  Copolymers of Ethylene .28
2.3.6.3  Substituted Olefins ..31
2.3.6.4  Polyesters 35
2.3.6.5  Polycarbonates 39
2.3.6.6  Polyamides ..39
2.3.6.7  Acrylonitriles ..43
2.3.7  Additives in Plastics ...44
2.3.7.1  Processing Additives...44
2.3.7.2  Plasticizers ..44
2.3.7.3  Antiaging Additives 44
2.3.7.4  Surface Property Modifiers 45
2.3.7.5  Optical Property Modifiers .45
2.3.7.6  Foaming Agents ..45
References ..46

Chapter 3  Edible, Biobased and Biodegradable Food Packaging Materials ..49
3.1  Introduction .49
3.2  Edible Packaging Materials .50
3.2.1  Polysaccharides ..51
3.2.1.1  Starch ..51
3.2.1.2  Cellulose .52
3.2.1.3  Hemicellulose .52
3.2.1.4  Chitosan ..52
3.2.1.5  Gums ...53
3.2.2  Lipids ..53
3.2.3  Proteins ...54
3.2.4  Composite Materials ..55
3.2.5  Film Additives 55
3.2.5.1  Plasticizers ..55
3.2.5.2  Emulsifiers ..55
3.2.5.3  Antimicrobials 56
3.2.5.4  Antioxidants 57
3.2.6  Bionanocomposites .57
3.2.7  Commercialization .57
3.3  Biobased and Biodegradable Packaging Materials .58
3.3.1  Classification ..58
3.3.2  Degradability Definitions ...59
3.3.3  Assessing Biodegradability of Biobased Polymers 61
3.3.4  Oxo-Biodegradable (OBD) Polymers .63
3.3.5  Category 1 ..64
3.3.5.1  Starch ..64
3.3.5.2  Cellulose .65
3.3.5.3  Hemicellulose .67
3.3.5.4  Chitosan ..67
3.3.5.5  Others..67
3.3.6  Category 2 ..68
3.3.6.1  Poly(lactic acid) ..68
3.3.6.2  Biopolyethylene ..69
3.3.6.3  Biopoly(ethylene terephthalate) ..69
3.3.7  Category 3 ..70
3.3.7.1  Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) .70
3.3.7.2  Bacterial Cellulose ..71
3.3.8  Category 4 ..72
3.3.8.1  Poly(caprolactone) ...72
3.3.8.2  Poly(glycolic acid) ..73
3.3.8.3  Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) .73
3.3.8.4  Poly(butylene succinate) and Copolymers ..73
3.3.8.5  Poly(propylene carbonate) ..74
3.3.9  Properties of Biobased Packaging Materials .74
3.3.9.1  Barrier Properties ...74
3.3.9.2  Mechanical Properties 76
3.3.10 Current Limitations 79
3.3.11 Methods to Improve Functionality .79
3.3.12 Bionanocomposites .79
3.3.13 Food Packaging Applications .81
3.4  Environmental Aspects ...82
3.5  Future Trends ...85
References ..86

Chapter 4  Optical, Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Thermoplastic Polymers. 91
4.1  Introduction .91
4.2  Optical Properties 91
4.3  Tensile Properties 92
4.4  Bursting Strength .94
4.5  Impact Strength ...94
4.6  Tear Strength ...95
4.7  Stiffness ...96
4.8  Crease or Flex Resistance 96
4.9  Coefficients of Friction 97
4.10 Blocking...97
4.11 Orientation and Shrinkage ..97
4.12 Barrier Properties 98
4.12.1 Introduction 98
4.12.2 Theory 98
4.12.3 Steady-State Diffusion .101
4.12.4 Unsteady-State Permeation ..102
4.12.5 Permeation through Pores 103
4.12.6 Permeability Coefficient Units .104
4.12.7 Polymer/Permeant Relationships .109
4.12.8 Variables of the Polymer .. 111
4.12.9 Factors Affecting the Diffusion and Solubility Coefficients  113
4.12.9.1 Pressure. 113
4.12.9.2 Sorption. 114
4.12.9.3 Temperature ..115
4.12.10 Transmission Rate  117
4.12.11 Migration ..122
4.12.12 Permeability of Multilayer Materials ...122
4.12.13 Measurement of Permeability ..125
4.12.13.1 Gas Permeability ..125
4.12.13.2 Water Vapor Permeability 127
4.12.13.3 Permeability of Organic Compounds ...128
References 128

Chapter 5  Processing and Converting of Thermoplastic Polymers ..131
5.1  Extrusion ...131
5.1.1  Monolayer Extrusion 131
5.1.2  Coextrusion ..133
5.2  Calendering ...134
5.3  Coating and Laminating 134
5.3.1  Surface Treatment 135
5.3.1.1  Surface Energy .135
5.3.1.2  Corona Treatment .135
5.3.1.3  Flame Treatment ...136
5.3.1.4  Priming .136
5.3.1.5  Chemical Treatment..136
5.3.2  Coating Processes.136
5.3.3  Laminating Processes ..137
5.4  Blending .138
5.5  Vapor Deposition ...139
5.5.1  Physical Vapor Deposition ...140
5.5.2  Chemical Vapor Deposition .142
5.5.2.1  Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition 142
5.5.2.2  Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition .146
5.5.3  Atomic Layer Chemical Vapor Deposition ..146
5.6  Nanocomposites.147
5.6.1  Nanoclays .147
5.6.2  Intercalation and Exfoliation 148
5.6.3  Synthesis of PCNs 149
5.6.4  Barrier Properties .150
5.6.5  Applications ..150
5.6.6  Bionanocomposites ...151
5.6.7  Future Developments 151
5.7  Orientation .152
5.7.1  Orientation Processes ...153
5.7.2  Shrink Films .155
5.7.3  Stretch Films 155
5.8  Cross-Linking 156
5.9  Micro perforation ...157
5.10 Injection Molding ..158
5.11 Blow Molding 159
5.11.1 Extrusion Blow Molding ..159
5.11.2 Injection Blow Molding 160
5.11.3 Stretch Blow Molding .. 161
5.12 Thermoforming .163
5.13 Foamed (Cellular) Plastics .163
References 164

Chapter 6  Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Materials ...167
6.1  Pulp 167
6.1.1  Introduction to Pulping 168
6.1.2  Mechanical Pulps .169
6.1.3  Chemical Pulps 169
6.1.3.1  Alkaline Processes ...170
6.1.3.2  Sulfite Processes ...170
6.1.4  Semichemical Pulps. 171
6.1.5  Digestion... 171
6.1.6  Bleaching ..172
6.1.6.1  Mechanical Pulps .172
6.1.6.2  Chemical Pulps .172
6.1.6.3  Recycled Pulps ..173
6.2  Paper ..173
6.2.1  Beating and Refining  174
6.2.2  Papermaking  175
6.2.2.1  Fourdrinier Machine. 175
6.2.2.2  Cylinder Machine. 176
6.2.2.3  Twin-Wire Formers ... 176
6.2.2.4  Presses and Dryers 177
6.2.3  Converting 177
6.2.3.1  Calendering ...177
6.2.3.2  Sizing 178
6.2.3.3  Barrier Coatings178
6.2.3.4  Pigments ...180
6.2.4  Physical Properties ...180
6.2.5  Types of Paper .. 181
6.2.5.1  Kraft Paper ... 181
6.2.5.2  Bleached Paper . 181
6.2.5.3  Greaseproof Paper  181
6.2.5.4  Glassine Paper .. 181
6.2.5.5  Vegetable Parchment 182
6.2.5.6  Waxed Paper .182
6.3  Paperboard Products ..182
6.3.1  Folding Cartons 183
6.3.2  Beverage Cartons .184
6.3.3  Molded Pulp Containers ...185
References 186

Chapter 7  Metal Packaging Materials...189
7.1  Introduction ...189
7.2  Manufacture of Tinplate 190
7.2.1  Manufacture of Pig Iron ...190
7.2.2  Steelmaking ..191
7.2.3  Tinplating .193
7.3  Manufacture of ECCS ...195
7.4  Manufacture of Aluminum 195
7.5  Container-Making Processes .197
7.5.1  End Manufacture ..197
7.5.2  Three-Piece Can Manufacture .198
7.5.2.1  Welded Side Seams ...198
7.5.2.2  Soldered Side Seams .199
7.5.2.3  Double Seaming ...199
7.5.3  Two-Piece Can Manufacture 200
7.5.3.1  Drawn and Ironed .201
7.5.3.2  Drawn and Redrawn .202
7.5.4  Protective and Decorative Coatings .203
7.5.4.1  Protective Coatings ...203
7.5.4.2  Decorative Coatings ..209
7.6  Aluminum Foils and Containers ...209
7.6.1  Aluminum Foil .209
7.6.2  Tube ..210
7.6.3  Retort Pouch .210
7.6.4  Bottle 212
7.7  Corrosion of Metal Packaging Materials ..212
7.7.1  Fundamental Concepts .212
7.7.1.1  Introduction ..212
7.7.1.2  Electrochemical Corrosion ...212
7.7.1.3  Electrochemical Series .213
7.7.1.4  Factors Affecting the Rate of Corrosion...215
7.7.1.5  Passivity 215
7.7.1.6  Stress Corrosion Cracking  216
7.7.2  Corrosion of Tinplate ... 216
7.7.2.1  Corrosion of Plain Tinplate Cans. 216
7.7.2.2  Corrosion of Enameled Cans  218
7.7.2.3  Corrosiveness of Foods .220
7.7.2.4  Effects of Processing and Storage 223
7.7.2.5  External Corrosion of Cans ..224
7.7.3  Corrosion of ECCS ...226
7.7.4  Corrosion of Aluminum ...226
References 227

Chapter 8  Glass Packaging Materials ...229
8.1  Introduction ...229
8.2  Composition and Structure 229
8.3  Physical Properties 231
8.3.1  Mechanical Properties ..231
8.3.2  Thermal Properties ...232
8.3.3  Optical Properties.233
8.4  Manufacture...234
8.4.1  Mixing and Melting..234
8.4.2  Forming Processes ...235
8.4.2.1  Blow and Blow ..235
8.4.2.2  Wide Mouth Press and Blow 236
8.4.2.3  Narrow Neck Press and Blow ...237
8.4.3  Annealing .237
8.4.4  Surface Treatments ...237
8.4.4.1  Hot-End Treatment ...237
8.4.4.2  Cold-End Treatment ..238
8.4.4.3  Shrink Sleeves ..238
8.4.5  Defects in Glass Containers .238
8.5  Glass Container Design .238
8.5.1  Glass Container Nomenclature.239
8.5.2  Glass Container Strength Factors .240
8.6  Closures for Glass Containers ...241
References 241

Chapter 9  Printing Processes, Inks, Adhesives and Labeling of Packaging Materials 243
9.1  Introduction ...243
9.2  Printing Processes .244
9.2.1  Relief 244
9.2.1.1  Letterpress 244
9.2.1.2  Flexography ..244
9.2.1.3  Flexo Process 245
9.2.2  Gravure .246
9.2.3  Lithography ..247
9.2.4  Screen ...248
9.2.5  Digital ...248
9.2.5.1  Ink-Jet ...249
9.2.5.2  Electrophotography ...249
9.3  Inks 250
9.3.1  Introduction ..250
9.3.1.1  Below the Surface .251
9.3.1.2  On the Surface ..251
9.3.1.3  Above the Surface .251
9.3.1.4  Through the Surface .251
9.3.1.5  No Surface 251
9.3.2  Ink Components ...251
9.3.3  Liquid Inks ...253
9.3.3.1  Flexographic Ink ...253
9.3.3.2  Gravure Ink ...253
9.3.3.3  Screen Ink .254
9.3.3.4  Digital Ink .254
9.3.4  Paste Inks .255
9.3.4.1  Offset Lithographic Inks ..255
9.3.4.2  Letterset Inks 255
9.3.4.3  Letterpress Inks 255
9.3.5  Thermochromic Inks 255
9.4  Adhesives ...256
9.4.1  Natural Materials .257
9.4.1.1  Starch 258
9.4.1.2  Protein ...258
9.4.1.3  Natural Rubber Latex ...258
9.4.2  Synthetic Materials...259
9.4.2.1  Water-Borne Adhesives 259
9.4.2.2  Hot-Melt Adhesives ..259
9.4.2.3  Solvent-Based Adhesives ..259
9.4.2.4  Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives ...259
9.5  Labeling .260
9.5.1  Glued-On Labels ..260
9.5.2  Self-Adhesive (Pressure-Sensitive) Labels ...260
9.5.3  In-Mold Labels .260
9.5.4  Sleeve Labels 261
9.5.5  Holographic Labels ..261
9.6  Coding ...262
9.6.1  Bar Codes .263
9.6.2  RFID.265
References 268

Chapter 10 Food Packaging Closures and Sealing Systems ...271
10.1 Closures for Glass and Plastic Containers .271
10.1.1 Closure Functions .271
10.1.2 Closure Construction 272
10.1.3 Food Container Closures ..272
10.1.3.1 Closures to Retain Internal Pressure 273
10.1.3.2 Closures to Contain and Protect Contents 274
10.1.3.3 Closures to Maintain Vacuum inside Container ...277
10.1.3.4 Closures to Secure Contents inside Container ..277
10.2 Heat Sealing ..278
10.2.1 Conductance Sealing 279
10.2.2 Impulse Sealing 280
10.2.3 Dielectric Sealing .281
10.2.4 Induction Sealing .282
10.2.5 Ultrasonic Sealing 283
10.2.6 Hot-Wire and Hot-Knife Sealing .284
10.2.7 Testing of Heat Seals 284
10.3 Peelable Seals 286
10.3.1 Adhesive Peel ...286
10.3.2 Cohesive Peel ...286
10.3.3 Delamination Peel 288
10.3.4 Heat Seal Coatings ...288
10.3.5 Seal Interface Temperature ..289
10.3.6 Nanocomposite Heat Sealants ..289
10.4 Cold Seals ..290
References 290

Chapter 11 Deteriorative Reactions in Foods .293
11.1 Introduction ...293
11.2 Deteriorative Reactions in Foods ..294
11.2.1 Enzymic Reactions ...294
11.2.2 Chemical Reactions ..295
11.2.2.1 Sensory Quality 295
11.2.2.2 Nutritional Quality298
11.2.3 Physical Changes ..299
11.2.4 Biological Changes ...300
11.2.4.1 Microbiological .300
11.2.4.2 Macrobiological 304
11.3 Rates of Deteriorative Reactions ...307
11.3.1 Zero-Order Reactions ...308
11.3.2 First-Order Reactions ... 310
11.3.3 Microbial Growth and Destruction ..312
11.3.3.1 Microbial Growth .312
11.3.3.2 Microbial Destruction ...313
11.4 Intrinsic Factors Controlling the Rates of Deteriorative Reactions .. 314
11.4.1 Water Activity .. 314
11.4.1.1 Definitions. 314
11.4.1.2 Isotherms .. 314
11.4.1.3 Water Activity and Food Stability  317
11.4.2 Oxidation-Reduction Potential .320
11.5 Extrinsic Factors Controlling the Rates of Deteriorative Reactions .320
11.5.1 Temperature ..320
11.5.1.1 Linear Model 321
11.5.1.2 Arrhenius Relationship .321
11.5.1.3 Temperature Quotient ...322
11.5.1.4 Bělerádek Function ...324
11.5.2 Gas Atmosphere ...324
11.5.3 Light .325
References 326

Chapter 12 Shelf Life of Foods ...329
12.1 Definitions .329
12.2 Shelf Life Determination ...331
12.2.1 Introduction ..331
12.2.2 Critical Descriptors and Indices of Failure ..332
12.2.3 Cutoff Point ..333
12.2.4 Influence of Packaging Material ..334
12.3 Determining Shelf Life from the Product Side .334
12.3.1 Product Characteristics 334
12.3.1.1 Perishability ..334
12.3.1.2 Bulk Density .335
12.3.1.3 Concentration Effects ...335
12.3.2 Package Properties ...336
12.3.2.1 Water Vapor Transfer 336
12.3.2.2 Gas and Odor Transfer ..341
12.3.2.3 Light Transmission ...343
12.3.2.4 Package Dimensions .344
12.3.2.5 Package/Product Interactions ...344
12.3.3 Distribution Environment .345
12.3.3.1 Climatic 345
12.3.3.2 Physical .351
12.4 Predicting Microbial Shelf Life .351
12.5 Accelerated Shelf Life Testing ..354
12.5.1 Basic Principles 354
12.5.2 ASLT Procedures .356
12.5.3 Examples of ASLT Procedures 357
12.5.3.1 Dehydrated Products.357
12.5.3.2 Frozen Foods 357
12.5.3.3 Canned Foods ...358
12.5.3.4 Oxygen-Sensitive Products ...358
12.5.3.5 Oxygen-Absorbing Package ..358
12.5.3.6 Long-Duration Spaceflight ...359
12.5.4 Problems in the Use of ASLT Conditions 359
12.6 Determining Shelf Life from the Consumer Side .360
12.7 Shelf Life Devices .362
12.8 Some Cautionary Advice ...363
References 363

Chapter 13 Aseptic Packaging of Foods .367
13.1 Introduction ...367
13.1.1 Historical Development 367
13.1.2 Principles of Sterilization .368
13.2 Sterilization of Packaging Material Food Contact Surfaces .370
13.2.1 Required Count Reduction ...370
13.2.2 Irradiation .371
13.2.2.1 Ionizing Radiation 371
13.2.2.2 Pulsed Light ..371
13.2.2.3 UV-C Radiation 371
13.2.2.4 Plasma ...371
13.2.3 Heat ..372
13.2.3.1 Saturated Steam 372
13.2.3.2 Superheated Steam ...372
13.2.3.3 Hot Air ..372
13.2.3.4 Hot Air and Steam 372
13.2.3.5 Extrusion ...372
13.2.4 Chemical Treatments373
13.2.4.1 Hydrogen Peroxide ...373
13.2.4.2 Peracetic Acid ...374
13.2.5 Verification of Sterilization Processes .374
13.3 Aseptic Packaging Systems ...374
13.3.1 Carton Systems .374
13.3.1.1 Form-Fill-Seal Cartons .375
13.3.1.2 Prefabricated Cartons ...376
13.3.2 Can Systems .377
13.3.3 Bottle Systems ..378
13.3.3.1 Glass .378
13.3.3.2 Plastics ..378
13.3.4 Sachet and Pouch Systems ...379
13.3.4.1 Form-Fill-Seal Systems 379
13.3.4.2 Bag-in-Box System ...380
13.3.4.3 Lay-Flat Tubing 380
13.3.5 Cup Systems .380
13.3.5.1 Preformed Plastic Cups 380
13.3.5.2 Form-Fill-Seal Cups .381
13.4 Integrity Testing of Aseptic Packages ...381
References 382

Chapter 14 Packaging of Microwavable Foods ..383
14.1 Introduction ...383
14.2 Basic Principles .383
14.2.1 Microwave Oven Operation .383
14.2.2 Microwave Heating Mechanisms .385
14.2.2.1 Dipole Polarization ...386
14.2.2.2 Ionic Conductivity 386
14.2.3 Dielectric Properties .387
14.2.4 Energy Conversion ...387
14.2.5 Penetration of Microwaves ...390
14.2.6 Nonuniform Heating 391
14.3 Effect of Food Product ..392
14.4 Packaging ..392
14.4.1 Transparent Materials...392
14.4.2 Absorbent Materials .393
14.4.3 Shielding and Field Modification .395
14.4.4 Doneness Indicators .396
14.4.5 Testing Methods and Safety .396
14.5 Conclusion .397
References 397

Chapter 15 Active and Intelligent Packaging..399
15.1 Historical Development .399
15.2 Definitions .400
15.2.1 Active Packaging ..400
15.2.2 Intelligent Packaging 402
15.3 Active Packaging Systems .403
15.3.1 Sachets and Pads ..403
15.3.1.1 O 2 Absorbers .403
15.3.1.2 CO 2 Absorbers/Emitters ...405
15.3.1.3 Ethylene Absorbers ...405
15.3.1.4 Ethanol Emitters ...406
15.3.1.5 Moisture Absorbers ..406
15.3.2 Active Packaging Materials .406
15.3.2.1 O 2 -Absorbing Materials 406
15.3.2.2 Ethylene Adsorbers ...408
15.3.2.3 Antioxidant Packaging .408
15.3.2.4 Antimicrobial Packaging ..408
15.3.2.5 Flavor/Odor Absorbers and Releasers .. 411
15.3.2.6 Microwave Susceptors .. 411
15.3.3 Self-Heating and Self-Cooling Packages .412
15.3.4 Changing Gas Permeability .412
15.3.5 Widgets .413
15.4 Intelligent Packaging. 414
15.4.1 Indicating Product Quality ... 414
15.4.1.1 Quality or Freshness Indicators  414
15.4.1.2 Time–Temperature Indicators...415
15.4.1.3 Gas Concentration Indicators ... 418
15.4.1.4 Radio Frequency Identification .420
15.4.1.5 Biosensors .421
15.4.2 Providing More Convenience ...422
15.4.2.1 Thermochromic Inks 422
15.4.2.2 Microwave Doneness Indicators ...422
15.4.3 Providing Protection against Theft, Counterfeiting and Tampering 423
15.5 Safety and Regulatory Issues 424
15.6 Conclusions 425
References 425

Chapter 16 Modified Atmosphere Packaging .429
16.1 Introduction ...429
16.1.1 Definitions 429
16.1.2 History of MAP 430
16.2 Principles ...431
16.3 Gases Used in MAP ..433
16.3.1 Carbon Dioxide 433
16.3.2 Oxygen .434
16.3.3 Nitrogen 434
16.3.4 Carbon Monoxide .434
16.3.5 Noble Gases ..435
16.3.6 Gas Mixtures 435
16.4 Methods of Creating MA Conditions 436
16.4.1 Passive MA ...436
16.4.2 Active MA 436
16.5 Equipment for MAP ..437
16.5.1 Form-Fill-Seal Machines .437
16.5.2 Chamber Machines ..437
16.5.3 Snorkel Machines .437
16.6 Packaging for MAP Applications ..437
16.7 Microbiology of MAP ...438
16.8 Safety of MAP ...440
16.9 Refrigerated, Pasteurized Foods with Extended Durability and Sous Vide .441
16.10 Applications of MAP .442
References 443

Chapter 17 Packaging of Flesh Foods 445
17.1 Introduction ...445
17.2 Red Meat ...445
17.2.1 Color of Red Meat 445
17.2.1.1 Introduction ..445
17.2.1.2 Myoglobin Pigments .445
17.2.1.3 Role of Oxygen .446
17.2.1.4 Color Intensity ..449
17.2.1.5 Role of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide ...450
17.2.1.6 Lighting.451
17.2.1.7 Effect of Temperature ...451
17.2.1.8 Effect of Freezing .451
17.2.2 Microbiology of Red Meat ...451
17.2.2.1 Introduction ..451
17.2.2.2 Effect of Temperature ...452
17.2.2.3 Effect of Gaseous Atmosphere .452
17.2.3 Lipid Oxidation 454
17.2.4 Vacuum Packaging of Fresh Meat 454
17.2.4.1 Vacuum Packaging Systems .455
17.2.4.2 Shelf Life of Vacuum Packaged Red Meats .458
17.2.5 Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Meat ..459
17.2.5.1 High Oxygen MAP ...460
17.2.5.2 Low Oxygen MAP 461
17.2.5.3 Ultra Low Oxygen MAP ..461
17.2.6 Packaging of Frozen and Restructured Meats .462
17.3 Cured and Cooked Meats ..463
17.4 Poultry ...465
17.5 Seafood ..467
17.5.1 Types of Spoilage .467
17.5.2 Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaging 469
17.5.3 Safety Aspects of Packaged Seafood ...471
References 473

Chapter 18 Packaging of Horticultural Products 477
18.1 Introduction ...477
18.2 Postharvest Physiology ..477
18.2.1 Respiration ...477
18.2.1.1 Internal Factors Affecting Respiration .479
18.2.1.2 External Factors Affecting Respiration 479
18.2.2 Transpiration 482
18.2.2.1 Introduction ..482
18.2.2.2 Factors Influencing Transpiration .482
18.2.3 Postharvest Decay 483
18.3 Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Horticultural Produce 483
18.3.1 Introduction ..483
18.3.2 Factors Affecting MAP 484
18.3.2.1 Resistance to Diffusion .485
18.3.2.2 Respiration 486
18.3.2.3 Temperature ..486
18.3.3 Methods of Creating MA Conditions ...487
18.3.4 Design of MAPs ...487
18.3.4.1 General Concepts ..487
18.3.4.2 Developing a Predictive Model .489
18.4 Packaging of Horticultural Products .494
18.4.1 Fresh and Minimally Processed Horticultural Produce ...494
18.4.1.1 Introduction ..494
18.4.1.2 Packaging Materials .495
18.4.1.3 Safety of MAP Produce 498
18.4.2 Frozen ...501
18.4.3 Canned .502
18.4.4 Dehydrated ...502
18.4.5 Vegetable Oils ..503
References 505

Chapter 19 Packaging of Dairy Products ...509
19.1 Introduction ...509
19.2 Fluid Milk ..509
19.2.1 Pasteurized Milk ..509
19.2.1.1 Effect of Microorganisms .509
19.2.1.2 Effect of Temperature ... 510
19.2.1.3 Effect of Light ... 511
19.2.1.4 Effect of Gases ..513
19.2.1.5 Packaging Materials. 514
19.2.2 UHT Milk. 516
19.2.2.1 Process Description .. 516
19.2.2.2 Microbiology. 516
19.2.2.3 Nutrition  517
19.2.2.4 Biochemical and Physical Aspects ... 518
19.2.2.5 Flavor  518
19.2.2.6 Packaging Materials. 519
19.3 Fermented Products ... 519
19.4 Butter and Spreads .521
19.4.1 Composition .521
19.4.2 Packaging Requirements ..522
19.4.2.1 Oxidation ..522
19.4.2.2 Water Vapor Permeability 524
19.4.2.3 Odor Permeability 524
19.4.2.4 Packaging in Current Use .524
19.5 Cheese ...524
19.5.1 Classification 524
19.5.2 Microbiology 525
19.5.3 Packaging Requirements ..525
19.5.3.1 Very Hard and Hard .526
19.5.3.2 Semisoft and Soft ..530
19.5.3.3 Fresh .532
19.5.3.4 Processed Cheese and Analogues 534
19.6 Milk Powders .535
19.6.1 Manufacture and Properties .535
19.6.2 Deteriorative Reactions 536
19.6.2.1 Oxidation ..536
19.6.2.2 Browning ..537
19.6.2.3 Caking...537
19.6.3 Packaging Requirements ..537
19.6.3.1 O 2 Permeability .537
19.6.3.2 Water Vapor Permeability 537
19.6.3.3 Light ..538
19.6.4 Packaging Materials .538
19.6.4.1 Metal Cans 538
19.6.4.2 Laminates .539
19.6.4.3 Fiber Cans .539
19.6.5 Packaging Techniques ..539
19.6.5.1 Gas Packing ..539
19.6.5.2 Vacuum Packaging ...540
References 540

Chapter 20 Packaging of Cereals, Snack Foods, and Confectionery...545
20.1 Introduction ...545
20.2 Grains 545
20.2.1 Wheat ...545
20.2.2 Flour .546
20.2.3 Rice...547
20.3 Breakfast Cereals...547
20.3.1 Manufacture .547
20.3.2 Indices of Failure ..548
20.3.3 Packaging .548
20.3.3.1 Loss of Crispness ..548
20.3.3.2 Lipid Oxidation .549
20.3.3.3 Loss of Vitamins ...550
20.3.3.4 Mechanical Damage .550
20.3.3.5 Loss of Flavor ...550
20.4 Pasta. 550
20.4.1 Dried Pasta ...551
20.4.2 Fresh Pasta 551
20.4.3 Noodles .552
20.5 Bakery Products 554
20.5.1 Bread 554
20.5.1.1 Manufacture ..554
20.5.1.2 Indices of Failure ..555
20.5.1.3 Packaging ..557
20.5.2 Biscuits, Cookies and Crackers 560
20.5.2.1 Manufacture ..560
20.5.2.2 Indices of Failure ..560
20.5.2.3 Packaging ..563
20.6 Snack Foods ...564
20.6.1 Fried Snack Foods 564
20.6.1.1 Manufacture ..564
20.6.1.2 Indices of Failure ..564
20.6.1.3 Packaging ..565
20.6.2 Extruded and Puffed Snacks 567
20.6.2.1 Manufacture ..567
20.6.2.2 Indices of Failure ..568
20.6.2.3 Packaging ..568
20.6.3 Fruit-Based Snacks ...569
20.7 Confectionery 569
20.7.1 Sugar Confectionery (Candy) ...569
20.7.1.1 Manufacture ..569
20.7.1.2 Indices of Failure ..570
20.7.1.3 Packaging ..571
20.7.2 Chocolate ..572
20.7.2.1 Manufacture ..572
20.7.2.2 Indices of Failure ..572
20.7.2.3 Packaging ..572
References 573

Chapter 21 Packaging of Beverages577
21.1 Introduction ...577
21.2 Water ..577
21.2.1 Introduction ..577
21.2.2 Indices of Failure ..578
21.2.3 Packaging .579
21.3 Carbonated Soft Drinks .580
21.3.1 Manufacture .580
21.3.2 Indices of Failure ..581
21.3.3 Packaging .581
21.3.3.1 Glass .581
21.3.3.2 Metal .581
21.3.3.3 Plastics ..582
21.4 Coffee 583
21.4.1 Manufacture .583
21.4.2 Indices of Failure ..584
21.4.3 Packaging .585
21.4.3.1 Roasted Whole Beans ...585
21.4.3.2 Roasted and Ground Coffee .586
21.4.3.3 Instant Coffee ...588
21.5 Tea .589
21.5.1 Manufacture .589
21.5.1.1 Black Tea ..589
21.5.1.2 Green Tea ..589
21.5.2 Indices of Failure ..589
21.5.2.1 Black Tea ..589
21.5.2.2 Green Tea ..589
21.5.3 Packaging .590
21.6 Juices .591
21.6.1 Manufacture .591
21.6.2 Indices of Failure ..591
21.6.3 Packaging .592
21.7 Beer 594
21.7.1 Manufacture .594
21.7.2 Indices of Failure ..594
21.7.3 Packaging .595
21.7.3.1 Glass .595
21.7.3.2 Metal .596
21.7.3.3 Plastics ..597
21.8 Wine ..598
21.8.1 Introduction ..598
21.8.2 Classification 598
21.8.3 Winemaking .598
21.8.4 Indices of Failure ..599
21.8.5 Packaging .599
21.8.5.1 Glass .599
21.8.5.2 Plastics ..601
21.8.5.3 Metal .602
21.8.5.4 Laminated Paperboard Cartons 602
References 603

Chapter 22 Legislative and Safety Aspects of Food Packaging .607
22.1 Introduction ...607
22.1.1 Package Selection Criteria607
22.1.2 Migration ..607
22.2 Regulatory Considerations 609
22.2.1 General Requirements ..609
22.2.2 United States of America. 611
22.2.3 European Union ... 618
22.2.3.1 Background ... 618
22.2.3.2 Directives .. 618
22.3 Plastics Packaging .622
22.3.1 Vinyl Chloride Monomer .622
22.3.2 Styrene Monomer .623
22.3.3 Acrylonitrile Monomer 623
22.3.4 Plasticizers 624
22.3.4.1 Phthalate and Adipate Esters 624
22.3.4.2 Acetyltributyl Citrate 625
22.3.4.3 Epoxidized Soy Bean Oil .626
22.3.5 Antioxidants .626
22.4 Metal Packaging 627
22.4.1 Tin 627
22.4.2 Lead ..628
22.4.3 Aluminum 628
22.4.4 Chromium 629
22.4.5 Silver .629
22.4.6 Epoxy Resin Coatings ..630
22.5 Paper Packaging 631
22.5.1 Dioxins .631
22.5.2 Benzophenone ..632
22.5.3 Isopropylthioxanthone ..633
22.5.4 Mineral Oil Saturated Hydrocarbons ...633
22.5.5 Miscellaneous ...634
22.6 Glass Packaging .636
22.7 Taints and Off-Flavors ...636
22.7.1 Solvents 636
22.7.2 Residual Monomers ..637
22.7.3 Organohalogens 637
22.7.4 Miscellaneous ...640
22.8 Traceability 640
References 640

Chapter 23 Food Packaging and Sustainability ..645
23.1 Introduction ...645
23.1.1 What Is Waste? .646
23.2 Waste Management Options ..647
23.2.1 Hierarchy of Waste Management .647
23.2.2 Source Reduction .648
23.2.3 Recycling ..649
23.2.3.1 Closed-Loop Recycling 649
23.2.3.2 Collection and Sorting ..650
23.2.3.3 Materials Recovery Facility..650
23.2.3.4 Benefits .650
23.2.3.5 Technologies .653
23.2.4 Composting ..656
23.2.5 Thermal Treatment ...657
23.2.6 Landfill .658
23.3 Life Cycle Assessment ...660
23.3.1 Goal Definition and Scoping 661
23.3.2 Life Cycle Inventory .661
23.3.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment .662
23.3.4 Life Cycle Interpretation ..662
23.3.5 Limitations of LCA ..662
23.3.6 Uses of LCAs ...663
23.3.7 Tools for LCA ...664
23.3.8 Carbon Footprinting .664
23.4 Packaging and Environmental Policies .666
23.4.1 United States 666
23.4.1.1 Container Deposits ...666
23.4.1.2 Extended Product Responsibility ..667
23.4.2 Europe ..667
23.4.2.1 Producer Responsibility 667
23.4.2.2 German Packaging Ordinance..668
23.4.2.3 Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive ..668
23.5 Packaging and Sustainability 669
23.5.1 Sustainable Development .669
23.5.2 Sustainable Packaging ..670
23.5.3 Sustainability Reporting ...672
23.5.4 Supply Chain Management ..672
References 673
Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols 675 

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