Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling

Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling


Author:
Sven Erik Jorgensen & Brian D. Fath
Published in: Elsevier
Release Year: 2011
ISBN: 978-0-444-53567-2
Pages: 414
Edition: Fourth Edition
File Size: 13 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling


This is the fourth edition of Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling, and we have given it a longer title: Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling: Application in Environmental Management and Research. This was done to emphasize that models, applied in environmental management and ecological research, are particularly considered in the model illustrations included in this book. Giuseppe Bendoricchio, the co-author of the third edition published in 2001, passed away in 2005. We would, therefore, like to dedicate this book to his memory and his considerable contributions in the 1980s and 1990s to the development of
ecological modelling. The first two editions of this book (published in 1986 and 1994) focused on the roots of the discipline — the four main model types that dominated the field 30-40 years ago: (1) dynamic biogeochemical models, (2) population dynamic models, (3) ecotoxicological models, and (4) steady-state biogeochemical and energy models. Those editions offered the first comprehensive textbook on the topic of ecological modelling. The third edition, with substantial input from Bendoricchio, focused on the mathematical formulations of ecological processes that are included in ecological models. In the third edition, the chapter called Ecological Processes encompasses 118 pages. The same coverage of this topic today would probably require 200 pages and is better covered in the Encyclopedia of Ecology, which was published in the fall of 2008.
This fourth edition uses the four model types previously listed as the foundation and expands the latest model developments in spatial models, structurally dynamic models, and individual-based models. As these seven types of models are very different and require different considerations in the model development phase, we found it important for an up-to-date textbook to devote a chapter to the development of each of the seven model types. Throughout the text, the examples given from the literature emphasize the application of models for environmental management and research. Therefore the book is laid out as follows:
Chapter 1: Introduction to Ecological Modelling provides an overview of the topic and sets the stage for the rest of the book. Chapter 2: Concepts of Modelling covers the main modelling elements of compartments (state variables), connections (flows and the mathematical equations used to represent biological, chemical, and physical processes), controls (parameters, constants), and forcing functions that drive the systems. It also describes the modelling procedure from conceptual diagram to verification, calibration, validation, and sensitivity analysis.
Chapter 3: An Overview of Different Model Types critiques when each type should or could be applied.
Chapter 4: Mediated or Institutionalized Modelling presents a short introduction to using the modelling process to guide research questions and facilitate stakeholder participation in integrated and interdisciplinary projects.
Chapter 5: Modelling Population Dynamics covers the growth of a population and the interaction of two or more populations using the Lotka-Volterra model, as well as another more realistic predator-prey and parasitism models. Examples include fishery and harvest models, metapopulation dynamics, and infection models.
Chapter 6: Steady-State Models discusses chemostat models, Ecopath software, and ecological network analysis. Chapter 7: Dynamic Biogeochemical Models are used for many applications starting with the original Streeter-Phelps model up to the current complex eutrophication models.
Chapter 8: Ecotoxicological Models provides a thorough investigation of the various ecotoxicological models and their use in risk assessment and environmental management.
Chapter 9: Individual-based Models discusses the history and rise of individual-based models as a tool to capture the self-motivated and individualistic characteristics individuals have on their environment.
Chapter 10: Structurally Dynamic Models presents 21 examples of where model parameters are variable and adjustable to a higher-order goal function (typically thermodynamic).
Chapter 11: Spatial Modelling covers the models that include spatial characteristics that are important to understanding and managing the system. 
This fourth edition is maintained as a textbook with many concrete model illustrations and exercises included in each chapter. The previous editions have been widely used as textbooks for past courses in ecological modelling, and it is the hope of the authors that this edition will be an excellent basis for today’s ecological modelling courses.

Content of Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling

1. Introduction 1
1.1 Physical and Mathematical Models 1
1.2 Models as a Management Tool 3
1.3 Models as a Research Tool 4
1.4 Models and Holism 7
1.5 The Ecosystem as an Object for Research 11
1.6 The Development of Ecological and Environmental
Models 13
1.7 State of the Art in the Application of Models 16
2. Concepts of Modelling 19
2.1 Introduction 19
2.2 Modelling Elements 20
2.3 The Modelling Procedure 24
2.4 Verification 31
2.5 Sensitivity Analysis 34
2.6 Calibration 37
2.7 Validation and Assessment of the Model Uncertainty 41
2.8 Model Classes 44
2.9 Selection of Model Complexity and Structure 51

2.10 Parameter Estimation 60
2.11 Ecological Modelling and Quantum Theory 78
2.12 Modelling Constraints 82
Problems 92
3. An Overview of Different Model Types 95
3.1 Introduction 95
3.2 Model types — An Overview 96
3.3 Conceptual Models 100
3.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Most
Applied Model Types 108
3.5 Applicability of the Different Model Types 116
Problems 118
4. Mediated or Institutionalized Modelling 121
4.1 Introduction: Why Do We Need Mediated
Modelling? 121
4.2 The Institutionalized Modelling Process 123
4.3 When Do You Apply Institutionalized or Mediated
Modelling (IMM)? 125
Problems 127
5. Modelling Population Dynamics 129
5.1 Introduction 129
5.2 Basic Concepts 129
5.3 Growth Models in Population Dynamics 131
Illustration 5.1 134
5.4 Interaction Between Populations 135
Illustration 5.2 141

Illustration 5.3 142
5.5 Matrix Models 147
Illustration 5.4 149
5.6 Fishery Models 150
5.7 Metapopulation Models 153
5.8 Infection Models 155
Problems 157
6. Steady-State Models 159
6.1 Introduction 159
6.2 A Chemo state Model to Illustrate a Steady-State
Biogeochemical Model 160
Illustration 6.1 162
6.3 Ecopath Models 162
6.4 Ecological Network Analysis 163
Problems 174
7. Dynamic Biogeochemical Models 175
7.1 Introduction 175
7.2 Application of Biogeochemical Dynamic Models 177
7.3 The Streeter-Phelps River BOD/DO Model, Using
STELLA 179
7.4 Eutrophication Models I: Simple Eutrophication
Models with 2–4 State Variables 184
7.5 Eutrophication Models II: A Complex
Eutrophication Model 192
7.6 Model of Subsurface Wetland 208
7.7 Global Warming Model 218
Problems 225

8. Ecotoxicological Models 229
8.1 Classification and Application of Ecotoxicological
Models 229
8.2 Environmental Risk Assessment 233
8.3 Characteristics and Structure of Ecotoxicological
Models 244
8.4 An Overview: The Application of Models in
Ecotoxicology 258
8.5 Estimation of Ecotoxicological Parameters 261
8.6 Ecotoxicological Case Study I: Modelling the
Distribution of Chromium in a Danish Fjord 271
8.7 Ecotoxicological Case Study II: Contamination of
Agricultural Products by Cadmium and Lead 278
8.8 Fugacity Fate Models 284
Illustration 8.1 287
Illustration 8.2 288
9. Individual-Based Models 291
9.1 History of Individual-Based Models 291
9.2 Designing Individual-Based Models 293
9.3 Emergent versus Imposed Behaviors 294
9.4 Orientors 295
9.5 Implementing Individual-Based Models 297
9.6 Pattern-Oriented Modelling 299
9.7 Individual-Based Models for Parameterizing Models 301
9.8 Individual-Based Models and Spatial Models 302
9.9 Example of 304
9.10 Conclusions 308
Problems 308
10. Structurally Dynamic Models 309
10.1 Introduction 309
10.2 Ecosystem Characteristics 310
10.3 How to Construct Structurally Dynamic Models
and Definitions of Exergy and Eco-exergy 321
10.4 Development of Structurally Dynamic Models
for Darwin’s Finches 333
10.5 Biomanipulation 335
10.6 An Ecotoxicological Structurally Dynamic
Models Example 343
Problems 346
11. Spatial Modelling 347
11.1 Introduction 347
11.2 Spatial Ecological Models: The Early Days 353
11.3 Spatial Ecological Models: State-of-the-Art 356
Problems 368
References 369
Index 385
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