Numerical Taxonomy

Numerical Taxonomy


Author:
Joseph Felsenstein
Published in: Springer-Verlag
Release Year: 1983
ISBN:
978-3-642-69024-2
Pages: 654
Edition: First Edition
File Size: 16 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Numerical Taxonomy


The NATO Advanced Study Institute on Numerical Taxonomy took place on the 4th - 16th of July, 1982, at the Kur- und Kongresshotel Residenz in Bad Windsheim, Federal Republic of Germany. Numerical Taxonomy volume is the proceedings of that meeting and contains papers by over two-thirds of the participants in the Institute. Numerical taxonomy has been attracting increased attention from systematists and evolutionary biologists. It is an area that has been marked by debate and conflict, sometimes bitter. Happily, the Numerical Taxonomy meeting took place in an atmosphere of "GemUtlichkeit", though scarcely of unanimity. I believe that these papers will show that there is an increased understanding by each taxonomic school of each others' positions. 
This augurs a period in which the debates become more concrete and specific. Let us hope that they take place in a scientific atmosphere which has occasionally been lacking in the past.
Since the order of presentation of papers in the meeting was affected by time constraints, I have taken the liberty of rearranging them into a more coherent subject ordering. The first group of papers, taken from the opening and closing days of the meeting, debate philosophies of classification. The next two sections have papers on congruence, clustering, and ordination. A notable concern of these participants is the comparison and testing of classifications. This has been missing from many previous discussions of numerical classification.
The next section moves from the subject of classification to that of reconstructing the course of evolution. It is followed by a number of papers on numerical methods for analyzing morphology. Although the meeting did not have a separate session on this topic, the papers form a natural group. The next two sections have application papers: I have separated the biochemical applications. The general applications include not only studies of morphological characters, but also applications of numerical-taxonomic methods to ecology and enology. The volume concludes with several papers on the use of computers in taxonomy.
Limitations of space prevent the reader from getting more than a taste of many of the presentations, particularly the contributed papers, most of which were limited to five pages in length. For example, it is impossible to get the full flavor of Lima's presentation without having the opportunity, as the participants did, of an organoleptic assessment of a large sample of his taxa. The invited presentations were limited to twenty pages each, which may allow a fuller picture of their contents.
As an editor, I have intervened as little as possible: these papers areas the authors wanted them to be. The index was compiled from keywords supplied by the authors: the page references in the index a.re to the first page of the relevant paper.

Content of Inorganic Chemistry



APPROACHES TO CLASSIFICA'l'ION
Joel Cracraft
The significance of phylogenetic classifications
for systematic and evolutionary biology.
V. A. Funk
The value of natural classification. • •
P. H. A. Sneath
Philosophy and method in biological classification.
Robert R. Soka1
The phenetics-c1adistics controversy: a personal view.
Daniel P. Faith
Parsimony and paraphy1y
John McNeill
The future of numerical methods in plant systematics:
a personal prospect.
Richard J. Jensen
A practical view of numerical taxonomy or should I be
a phenetics or a c1adist? ••
Wayne Moss
Taxa, taxonomists, and taxonomy.
TAXONOMIC CONGRUENCE
Robert R. Soka1
Taxonomic congruence in the Camina1cu1es.
F. James Rohlf, Donald H. Co11ess, and Gene Hart
Taxonomic congruence - a reanalysis ••••
Kent L. Fiala
A simulation model for numerical taxonomic methods.
Jorge V. Crisci
Taxonomic congruence:
Roger I. C. Hansell and
Algorithms optimizing
classifications.
James W. Archie

a brief discussion.
Peter H. A. Sneath
the taxonomic information of

Prediction = Parsimony or Partitions?
Daniel P. Faith
Information content and most parsimonious trees.
Sue Gardner
Numerical taxonomic evaluation of the taxonomic value
of character suites in Ti11andsia L.
M. Adey, I. C. Prentice, F. A. Bisby, and J. A. Harris
Instability and incongruence in the brooms and gorses
(Leguminosae subtribe Genistinae)
F. R. McMorris, D. B. Meronk, and D. A. Neumann
A view of some consensus methods for trees.
William H. E. Day
Distributions of distances between
pairs of classifications.
K. Shao and F. J. Rohlf
Sampling distribution of consensus indices when
all bifurcating trees are equally likely.
CLUSTERING AND ORDINATION
J. C. Gower
Comparing classifications.
David W. Matula
Cluster validity by concurrent chaining.
Glenn W. Milligan
Characteristics of four external criterion measures.
Jocelyne Ferraris
Comparison of classifications with the data
from which they are derived •.•
I. C. Lerman
Sur la signification des classes issues dune
classification Automatique de donnees.
Christophe Perruchet
Significance tests for clusters:
overview and comments.
Lawrence J. Hubert
Inference procedures for the evaluation
and comparison of proximity matrices.
J. Douglas Carroll and Sandra Pruzansky
Representing proximities data by discrete,
continuous, or "hybrid" models.
Paulo. Degens
Hierarchical cluster methods as maximum likelihood
estimators.
Gene Hart
The occurrence of multiple UPGMA phenograms.
RECONSTRUCTING PHYLOGENIES
Donald H. Colless
Wagner trees in theory and practice. •
George F. Estabrook
The causes of character incompatibility.
Walter J. Le Quesne
The uniquely derived concept as a basis
for character compatibility analyses •••
Christopher A. Meacham
Theoretical and computational considerations of the
compatibility of qualitative taxonomic characters. •
Joseph Felsenstein
Methods for inferring phylogenies:
a statistical view. • • . • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • •
Daniel P. Faith
A divisive algorithm for estimating
parsimonious trees. . • • • • • • • . . . • Bernard R. Baum
Relationships between transformation series and some
numerical cladistic methods at the infraspecific
level, when genealogies are known. • ••••••••••••
ANALYZING MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION
William R. Atchley
Some genetic aspects of morphometric variation. • • •
Jean-Marie Tubac
Choice of descriptors in numerical taxonomy for static
and dynamic shape analysis and recognition in biology.
Chris Simon
A new coding procedure for morphometric data with
an example from periodical cicada wing veins. •
M. T. Almeida and F~ A. Bisby
A quick method for making multistate characters
out of continuous measurements. • • • • . • . • • • • • • ••
GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION
Robert R. Sokal
Analyzing character variation in geographic space.
R. S. Thorpe
A review of the numerical methods for recognizing
and analyzing racial differentiation. • • •
John A. Endler
Testing causal hypotheses of geographical variation.
A. Piazza and P. Menozzi
Geographic variation in human gene frequencies.
A. Piazza and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza
Treeness tests and the problem of variable
evolutionary rates •••••••••••••
R. S. Thorpe
Phylogenetic analysis of range expansion in the
grass snake: reticulate evolution: primary and
secondary contact zones.
Kani Isik
Correspondence between geographic proximity and
phenetic similarity among pinus brutia Ten.
populations in southern Turkey •••••• Robert Gorenflot, Jean-Marie Hubac, Maurice Jay,
and Paul Lalande
Geographic distribution, polyploidy, and pattern of
flavonoids in Phragmites australis
(Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. •••••
BIOCHEMICAL APPLICATIONS
J. J. Beintema
Molecular evolution of mammalian pancreatic
ribonucleases.
Georg E. Schulz
Quantitative comparison of protein chain folds.
B. Sutherlin, G. E. Schulz, R. H. Schirmer, A. Jung, W. Hupe,
and R. Frank
An approach to the taxonomy of malaria parasites on
the basis of protein structures: adenylate kinase and
glutathione reductase as examples.•••
Mireille Bruschi
Evolutionary relations of sulfate reducers.
P. Mick Richardson
Methods of flavonoid data analysis. • •
Paul G. Mahlberg and Joanna Pleszczynska
Phylogeny of Euphorbia interpreted from the sterol
composition of latex. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 

GENERAL APPLICATIONS
Pierre Legendre
Numerical ecology: developments and recent trends.
A. J. Gilmartin
Evolutionary trees and numerical taxonomy in studies
of Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) ••••
Chris Simon
Application of numerical techniques to the systematics of
Toxorhynchites (Diptera: Culicidae). • ••••• Lajos Hajdu
A chromosome inversion pathway for some Chironomus
species and two new techniques for analyzing
similarity functions ••...•...••.••
K. Daly and D. A. Kuhn
Multivariate analysis of variability associated with the source of origin in the bacterium Simonsiella.
G. David E. Povel
Reflections on the classifications of Yponomeuta
(Yponomeutidae, Lepidoptera) and numerical taxonomic
procedure.
Rubens A. da Cunha
A phenetic study of the genus Xylocopa (Hym.-Apoidea).
Hari K. Seth
Numerical taxonomy of
I. Togan, N. ~dem, and
A numerical taxonomic

the genus Chaetomium Kze  A. Kence
study on Carthamus L. taxa
in Turkey.
Walter Titz
Multivariate analysis of the polyploid complex
Valeriana officinal is (preliminary report) •• Gary D. Schnell and Barbara L. Woods
Application of numerical taxonomic techniques
to the study of behavior ..•.••••••
Manuel B. Lima
Numerical taxonomy of some Portuguese wines.
COMPUTERS IN SYSTEMATICS
F. James Rohlf and Scott Ferson
Image analysis ••.•
Joseph Felsenstein
Computers in systematics: one perspective.
Leslie Marcus
Automated measurement with portable microcomputers.
F. A. Bisby, R. J. White, T. D. Macfarlane, and M. T. Babac
The Vicieae database project: experimental uses of a monographic taxonomic database for species of vetch
and pea. •••
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS.
INDEX.
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