Paleobotany the Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants

Paleobotany the Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants


Author:
Thomas N. Taylor, Edith L. Taylor, Michael Krings
Published in: Academic Press
Release Year: 2008
ISBN: 978-0123-7-3972-8
Pages: 1253
Edition: Second Edition
File Size: 194 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Paleobotany the Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants


One of the major challenges faced by paleobotanists is the extraordinary interdisciplinary nature of science. Most paleobotanists are quick to point out, however, that they were practicing collaborative and interdisciplinary science long before the concepts became fashionable in the research environment of today. We view Paleobotany the Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants book as an up-to-date introduction to the discipline for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and as a book that is more encyclopedic in the organization than other paleobotany textbooks and that can be used as a reference for a number of disciplines that today encompass the biological and geological sciences, whether professional or amateur.
Although Paleobotany the Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants book is not technically a second edition, it does include material from The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants by Thomas N. Taylor and Edith L. Taylor (1993), which has long been out of print. To make the book usable to a wider range of readers, we begin each chapter with a general introduction that provides the essential characteristics of a particular group, including not only information about fossil members but also, where applicable, living representatives. In addition to a comprehensive table of contents, we have added a table to each chapter that summarizes the higher taxa in the chapter and the geologic range of each group. Chapters are subdivided to make it easier for readers
to find information. For the nonbiologist, we have included a discussion of plant structure, tissue systems, and plant organs (Chapter 7) that is supplemented by illustrations and diagrams. To further assist in making the book useful, we have expanded the glossary from Taylor and Taylor (1993) to more than 900 entries. For easy reference, a chart showing the geologic periods is included inside the front and back covers. With more than 5000 references, Paleobotany the Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants book provides an introduction to the primary literature. We received numerous favorable comments regarding the portraits of distinguished paleobotanists and therefore have included many more in Paleobotany the Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants book.

Content of Inorganic Chemistry



CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Paleobotany,
How Fossil Plants are Formed 1
What Is Paleobotany? 1
The Objectives of Paleobotany 2
Reconstructing the Plants 2
Evolution of Plant Groups 3
Form and Function in Fossil Plants 4
Biostratigraphy and Correlation 4
Paleoecology: Plants in Their Environment 5
Determining Paleoclimate from Fossil Plants 6
Tree Rings 6
Nearest Living Relative 6
Leaf Physiognomy 7
Stomatal Index 7
Summary 7
Preservation: How to Plant Fossils are Formed and
Preserved 8
Depositional Environments of Fossil Plants 8
Compressions 10
Cuticle 13
Biofilms and Plant Fossil Preservation 16
Electron Microscopy 17
Confocal Microscopy 17
Maceration and D├ęgagement 17
Other Techniques 18
Coal and Charcoal 18
Impressions 21
Molds and Casts 22
Cellular Preservation 23
Permineralization 25
Peel Technique 25
Coal Balls 27
Other Permineralizations 29
Petrifaction 30
Unaltered Plant Material 30
Chemical Fossils 32
Ancient DNA 33
Mummification 33
Amber 33
Summary of Discussion 34
Palynology 34
Geochronology and Biostratigraphy 36
Paleoecology 37
Absolute Dating 38
Geologic Timescale 39
Biological Correlation 40
Systematics and Classification 40
Nomenclature of Fossil Plants 41
Classification of Organisms 42

Background Reading 42

CHAPTER 2
Precambrian Life 43
The Origin of Life on Earth 44
Origin of Life: Theory and Biology 46
Earliest Record of Life on Earth 47
Historical Background 47
Earliest Records of Life: Paleoarchean (3.6--3.2 Ga) 47
Geochemistry 47
Microfossils (Body Fossils) 49
Isua Greenstone Belt, Greenland 49
Warrawoona Group, Australia 49
Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa 51
Stromatolites 52
Sedimentary Evidence 53
Mesoarchean--Neoarchean Life 54
Conclusions: Archean Life 55
Oxygenation of the Earth (2.45--2.2 Ga) 57
Proterozoic Life 59
Paleoproterozoic 59
Origin of Eukaryotes 61
Mesoproterozoic 64
Earliest Multicellular Life 64
Neoproterozoic 64

Bitter Springs Biota 65
Stromatolites 66
Other Microfossils 67
Doushantuo Formation 70
Conclusions 70

CHAPTER 3
Fungi, Bacteria, and Lichens 71
Fungi 71
Earliest Fossil Fungi 73
Systematics of Fungi 77
Chytridiomycota 77
Zygomycota 82
Glomeromycota 84
Ascomycota 90
Basidiomycota 93
Other Fungal Remains 97
Fungal Life-History Strategies 98
Saprotrophic 98
Parasitism 99
Mutualism 103
Fungi--Animal Interactions 105
Geologic Activities of Fungi 107
Epiphyllous Fungi 108
Fungal Spores 111
Fungal-like Organisms 112
Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota) 112
Eubacteria and Archaea 112
Archaea 113
Eubacteria 113
Cyanobacteria 115
Lichens 117

CHAPTER 4
Algae 121
Chlorophyta (Green Algae) 123
Prasinophyceae 124
Chlorophyceae 126
Volvocales 126
Tetrasporales 126
Chlorococcales 127
Ulvophyceae 128
Dasycladales 128
Receptaculitida and Cyclocrinales 130
Caulerpales 130
Taxa Incertae Sedis 133
Charophyceae 133
Charales 134
Zygnematales 138
Euglenophyta 138 Dinophyta (Dinoflagellates) 139
Heterokontophyta 141
Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) 141
Dictyochophyceae (Silicoflagellates) 142
Xanthophyceae (Yellow-Green Algae) 142
Phaeophyceae (Brown Algae) 143
Prymnesiophyta (Haptophytes) 144
Rhodophyta (Red Algae) 145
Solenoporaceans 146
Other Calcified Red Algae 149
Corallinales 149
Uncalcified Red Algae 150
Acritarcha (Acritarchs) 158

CHAPTER 5
Hornworts and Bryophytes 161
Early Fossil Evidence 163
Anthocerotophyta (Hornworts) 165
Bryophyta (Bryophytes) 166
Marchantiophytina (Liverworts or Hepatophytes) 167
Bryophytina (Mosses) 174

CHAPTER 6
The Move to the Land 179
Enigmatic Organisms 180
Nematophytes 180
Prototaxites 180
Nematothallus 183
Nematoplexus 183
Nematasketum diversiform 183
Pachytheca 184
Spongiophytaceae 185
Spongiophyton 185
Orestovia 186
Other Enigmatic Organisms 186
Protosalvinia 186
Parka 188
Isolated Fragments: Clues to the Transition to Land? 189
Cuticle and Cuticle-Like Material 189
Spores and Spore Tetrads 189
Tubes 192
Land Plant Ancestors 193
The Transition to Land 194
Anchorage and Water Uptake 194
Structural Support and Water Transport 195
Protection Against Desiccation and Radiation 195
Gas Exchange 195
Reproduction on Land 196

Life History Biology 196
Homologous Theory 196
Antithetic Theory 196
Animals 198
A Fungal Partner 198
Conclusion 199

CHAPTER 7
Introduction to Vascular Plant Morphology
and Anatomy 201
Plant Organography 202
Cell Types 203
Parenchyma 203
Collenchyma 203
Sclerenchyma 203
Tracheary Elements 204
Tracheids 204
Vessel Elements 206
Sieve Elements 206
Plant Tissues and Primary Growth 207
Xylem Tissue 207
Phloem Tissue 207
Meristems 208
Epidermis 208
Cuticle 209
Stomata 209
Trichomes 210
Anatomy of Stems and Roots 210
Arrangement of Primary Tissues 210
Primary Xylem Maturation Patterns 212
Secondary Development 212
Vascular Cambium 212
Cork Cambium (Phellogen) 213
Secondary Xylem 214
Secondary Phloem 216
Stele Types 216
Primitive Vascular Plants (Vascular Cryptogams) 216
Seed Plants 219
Leaf Morphology and Anatomy 221
Leaf Anatomy 221
Leaf Evolution 222
Further Reading 222

CHAPTER 8
Early Land Plants with Conducting
Tissue 223
Conducting Elements in Early Land Plants 224
History of Discovery 225 Rhyniophytes 227
Rhynie Chert Plants 228
Aglaophyton major 229
Rhynia Gwynne-vaughanii 235
Horneophyton lignieri 237
Asteroxylon mackiei 238
Nothia aphylla 239
Trichopherophyton teuchansii 241
Ventarura lyonii 241
Gametophyte Generation 241
Other Rhyniophytes 246
Discussion: Rhyniophyte Evolution 251
Zosterophyllophytes 252
Zosterophyll Evolution 259
Trimerophytes 259
Trimerophyte Evolution 262
Early Land Plant Evolution 263

CHAPTER 9
Lycophyta 265
Evolution of the Microphyll 267
Drepanophycales 268
Protolepidodendrales 271
Lepidodendrales 279
Vegetative Features 282
Stem Surface and Leaf Bases 282
Stem Anatomy 285
Cortical Tissues 286
Stem Development 287
Leaves 289
Underground Organs 289
Development of Underground Organs 293
Reproductive Biology 294
Microsporangiate and Bisporangiate Cones 295
Megasporangiate Cones 297
Gametophytes 302
Sigillariaceae 303
Leaf Bases 304
Leaves 305
Stem Structure 305
Underground Organs 306
Reproductive Biology 306
Other Lepidodendrid Genera 307
Lycopodiales 310
Selaginellales 312
Pleuromeiales 316
Isoetales 320
Putative Lycopsids 325

Conclusions 326

CHAPTER 10
Sphenophytes 329
Pseudoborniales 331
Sphenophyllales 332
Devonian Sphenophyllales 333
Sphenophyllum 334
Leaves 334
Stem Anatomy 335
Roots 337
Reproductive Biology 337
Other Sphenophyllales 338
Ecology 341
Equisetales 342
Calamitaceae 343
Archaeocalamites 343
Calamites 345
Pith Casts 349
Stem Anatomy 350
Extraxylary Tissues 352
Growth and Development 352
Roots 353
Leaves 354
Other Calamitean Leaves 357
Reproductive Biology 358
Spores 366
Tchernoviaceae and Gondwanostachyaceae 368
Vegetative Body 368
Reproductive Biology 369
Equisetaceae 371
Forms with Uncertain Affinities 376
Sphenophyte Evolution 379

CHAPTER 11
Ferns and Early Fernlike Plants 383
Evolution of the Megaphyll 386
Cladoxylopsida 387
Pseudosporochnales 388
Calamophyton Plant 396
Iridopteridales 398
Phylogenetic Position of the Cladoxylopsids 400
Early Fernlike Plants 401
Rhacophytales 401
Rhacophyton 402
Other Taxa 403
Systematics of the Rhacophytales 404
Coenopterid Ferns 405
Stauropteridales 405
Zygopteridales 408 Zygopterid Evolution 417
Marattiales 418
Psaroniaceae: Vegetative Features 418
Psaronius Plant 418
Other Stem Taxa 425
Psaroniaceae: Reproductive Features 425
Paleozoic Compression Taxa 431
Mesozoic Marattialeans 433
Marattialean Evolution 434
Ophioglossales 435
Leptosporangiate Ferns 436
Osmundales 436
Paleozoic Stem Taxa 437
Guaireaceae 438
Mesozoic and Cenozoic Stem Taxa 438
Sterile and Fertile Foliage 440
Osmundalean Evolution 442
Botryopteridaceae 443
Vegetative Organs 443
Reproductive Organs 446
Other Genera 449
Anachoropteridaceae 449
Kaplanopteridaceae 451
Psalixochlaenaceae 452
Sermayaceae 453
Tedeleaceae 454
Skaaripteridaceae 457
Tempskyaceae 457
Schizaeaceae 459
Hymenophyllaceae 462
Gleicheniaceae 462
Dicksoniaceae 464
Cyatheaceae 465
Matoniaceae 466
Loxsomataceae 469
Dipteridaceae 469
Polypodiales 470
Salviniales 472
Marsileaceae 472
Salviniaceae 473
Conclusions 476

CHAPTER 12
Progymnosperms 479
Archaeopteridales 480
Archaeopteris Leaves 481
Archaeopteryx Reproduction 483
Callixylon Stems in 484

Other Archaeopterids 487
Aneurophytales 489
Aneurophyton 489
Tetraxylopteris 489
Triloboxylon 491
Rellimia 492
Other Aneurophytes 494
Protopityales 496
Noeggerathians 497
Progymnosperm Evolution 501

CHAPTER 13
Origin and Evolution of the Seed Habit 503
Homospory, Heterospory, and the Seed Habit 503
Homospory 503
Heterospory 504
Sporangia 504
Endoscopy 507
Lycopsid Heterospory 508
Seed Habit 508
Evolution of the Integument 509
Evolution of Pollen Capture 510
Pollen 511
Cupules 511
Cupulate Devonian Seeds 511
Reproductive Biology 517
Carboniferous Seeds 518
Pollen Chamber Function 523
Microgametophytes 524
Diversity of Early Seeds 525
Paleozoic Seeds with Embryos 526

CHAPTER 14
Paleozoic Seed Ferns 529
Calamopityales 531
Buteoxylonales 539
Lyginopteridales 540
Lyginopteris Plant 540
Vegetative Organs 540
Reproductive Structures 542
Other Lyginopterids: Vegetative Remains 546
Heterangium 547
Microspermopteris 550
Schopfiastrum 550
Pity 551
Devonian--Mississippian Taxa 552
Problematic Lyginopterids 554
Other Lyginopterids: Seeds and Cupules 555
Sphaerostoma 556
Salpingostoma 556 Conostoma 556
Coronostoma 557
Physostoma 557
Tyliosperma 558
Calathospermum 558
Gnetopsis 559
Megatheca 559
Other Lyginopterids: Pollen Organs 560
Incertae Sedis 563
Lyginopterid Evolution 565
Medullosales 566
Stems 566
Medullosa 566
Other Stem Taxa 569
Leaves (Fronds) 570
Roots 572
Growth Habit 572
Seeds 573
Pollen organs 581
Pollen 590
Medullosan Evolution 591
Callistophytales 593
Vegetative Organs 594
Reproductive Structures 595
Callistophytalean Evolution 598
Glossopteridales 598
Leaves 599
Glossopteris 599
Gangamopteris 603
Other Leaf Types 603
Stems and Roots 605
Ovulate Reproductive Structures 606
Permineralized Forms 606
Impression--Compression Specimens 609
What is the Glossopterid Ovulate Structure? 614
Pollen Organs 616
Glossopteris Habit and Habitat 618
Phylogenetic Position 618

CHAPTER 15
Mesozoic Seed Ferns 621
Caytoniales 622
Sagenopteris 622
Caytonanthus 623
Caytonia 624
Ruflorinia and Ktalenia 626
Corystospermales 627
Foliage 627

Stems 630
Pollen Organs 631
Ovulate Structures 634
Petriellales 637
Peltaspermales 639
Foliage 639
Reproductive Organs and Whole-Plant
Concepts 643
Conclusions 648

CHAPTER 16
Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic Foliage 651
Late Paleozoic Foliage 652
Adiantites 655
Alethopteris 656
Aneimites 657
Aphlebia 658
Alloiopteris 658
Botrychiopsis 659
Callipteridium 659
Cardiopteridium 660
Cardiopteris (Fryopsis) 660
Charliea 660
Cyclopteris 661
Dicksoniites 662
Discopteris 664
Eremopteris 664
Ginkgophytopsis 664
Kankakeea 665
Karinopteris, Mariopteris, and Pseudomariopteris 665
Lesleya 669
Linopteris, Reticulopteris, and Barthelopteris 669
Lobatopteris 671
Lonchopteridium and Lonchopteris 672
Megalopteris 672
Neuropteris sensu lato 673
Laveinopteris 674
Macroneuropteris 674
Margaritopteris 674
Neuralethopteris 674
Neurocallipteris 675
Neurodontopteris 675
Neuropteris sensu stricto 675
Paripteris 675
Sphenoneuropteris 676
Neuropterid Growth Habit 676
Blanzyopteris 676
Nothorhacopteris 677
Odontopteris and Lescuropteris 677
Pecopteris 679 Rhodea ( Rhodeopteridium) 680
Sphenopteris 680
Sphenopteris sensu stricto 682
Eusphenopteris 682
Spiropteris 683
Taeniopteris 683
Tinsleya 685
Triphyllopteris, Genselia, and Charbeckia 685
Mesozoic Foliage 685
Anomozamites 687
Cladophlebis 687
Coniopteris 688
Ctenis 689
Deltolepis and Cycadolepis 689
Dictyophyllum 689
Dictyozamites 689
Doratophyllum 690
Macrotaeniopteris 690
Matonidium 690
Mesodescolea 690
Nilssonia 690
Nilssoniopteris 691
Otozamites 693
Pachypteris, Komlopteris, and Thinnfeldia 695
Phlebopteris 696
Pseudoctenis 696
Pseudocycas 697
Pterophyllum 697
Ptilophyllum 698
Ptilozamites 699
Ruflorinia 699
Taeniozamites 700
Ticoa 700
Wingatea 700
Yabeiella 700
Zamites 701

CHAPTER 17
Cycadophytes 703
Cycadales 703
Leaves and Petioles 706
Stems 707
Paleozoic Reproductive Structures 709
Triassic Cycads 715
Jurassic Cycads 718
Pollination Biology 721
Discussion: Cycad Evolution 721
Bennettitales 722

Cycadeoidaceae 725
Stem Anatomy 725
Reproductive Structures 728
Development 730
Williamsoniaceae 732
Ovulate Structures 734
Pollen Organs 738
Discussion: Bennettitales 739

CHAPTER 18
Ginkgophytes 743
Paleozoic Record 744
Ginkgophyte Wood 747
Ginkgophyte Foliage 747
Pollen-Producing Structures 750
Ginkgophyte Plants 750
Ginkgoaceae 750
Karkeniaceae 752
Umaltolepidiaceae 752
Yimaiaceae 752
Schmeissneriaceae 753
Taxa with Uncertain Affinities 754
Conclusions 755

CHAPTER 19
Gymnosperms with Obscure Affinities 757
Gigantopteridales 758
Vegetative Remains 758
Reproductive Organs 762
Vojnovskyales 763
Czekanowskiales 765
Iraniales 768
Pentoxylales 768
Hermanophytales 773
Gnetales 775
Extant Genera 776
Ephedra 776
Gnetum 776
Welwitschia 776
Extant Reproductive Structures 777
Fossil Gnetophyte Pollen 777
Gnetophyte Megafossils 778
Putative Gnetophytes 781
Dirhopalostachyaceae 785

CHAPTER 20
Cordaitales 787
Vegetative Features 788
Stems 788
Foliage 791 Roots 794
Reproductive Features 795
Reproductive Organs 795
Seeds 798
Angaran Cordaites 801
Phylogenetic Position and Origin of the Cordaites 803

CHAPTER 21
Conifers 805
Early Conifers 806
Voltziales 807
Utrechtiaceae 808
Utrechtia 809
Ernestiodendron 809
Ortiseia 809
Otovicia 810
Moyliostrobus 811
Other Taxa 811
Thucydiaceae 814
Emporiaceae 815
Majonicaceae 816
Ullmanniaceae 819
Bartheliaceae 820
Other Voltzialeans 820
Ferugliocladaceae 823
Buriadiaceae 826
Pollen Cones 826
Summary Discussion: Voltzialeans 828
Coniferales 830
Palissyaceae 830
Cheirolepidiaceae 831
Summary Discussion: Cheirolepidiaceae 837
Podocarpaceae 838
Summary Discussion: Podocarpaceae 843
Araucariaceae 843
Summary Discussion: Araucariaceae 848
Cupressaceae 849
Cunninghamioideae 850
Taiwanioideae 851
Athrotaxoideae 851
Sequoioideae 852
Taxodioideae 854
Cupressoideae 857
Cupressaceous Wood 859
Summary Discussion: Cupressaceae 859
Sciadopityaceae 860
Pararaucariaceae 861
Pinaceae 861

Pinoideae 863
Genus Pinus 864
Pinus Wood 866
Larix 866
Piceoideae 867
Abietoideae 867
Summary Discussion: Pinaceae 868
Cephalotaxaceae 868
Taxaceae 869
Summary Discussion: Cephalotaxaceae and
Taxaceae 869
Conclusions 870

CHAPTER 22
Flowering Plants 873
Angiosperm Origins 876
Origin of the Flower 877
Pseudanthial Theory 877
Euanthial Theory 878
Microsporangial Theories 878
Transitional--Combination Theory 878
Habit 879
Ecological Considerations 879
Site of Origin 880
Pre-Cretaceous Fossil Evidence 880
Sanmiguelia 881
Furcula 882
Problematospermum 883
Pre-Cretaceous Pollen 883
Dispersed Pollen 884
Early Angiosperm Evidence 885
Pollen 885
Pollen Evolution 889
Evidence from Leaves 889
Angiosperm Ancestors 893
Caytoniales 894
Czekanowskiales 895
Glossopteridales 895
Bennettitales 895
Pentoxylales 895
Gigantopteridales 895
Phylogenetic Analyses and Angiosperm Origins 895
Selected Angiosperm Families 897
Basal Angiosperms 898
Amborellaceae 898
Hydatellaceae 898
Archaefructaceae 898
Chloranthaceae 899
Nymphaeales 901 Nymphaeaceae 901
Austrobaileyales 902
Austrobaileyaceae 902
Illiciaceae 902
Schisandraceae 903
Ceratophyllales 904
Ceratophyllaceae 904
Magnoliids 904
Canellales 904
Winteraceae 904
Laurales 906
Calycanthaceae 906
Lauraceae 906
Magnoliales 908
Annonaceae 908
Magnoliaceae 909
Myristicaceae 914
Piperales 915
Lactoridaceae 915
Saururaceae 915
Monocotyledons 917
Alismatales 917
Alismataceae 917
Araceae 917
Hydrocharitaceae 917
Zosteraceae (Seagrasses) 920
Asparagales 921
Agapanthaceae 921
Hemerocallidaceae 921
Orchidaceae 921
Dioscoreales 922
Dioscoreaceae 922
Liliales 922
Petermanniaceae 922
Pandanales 923
Pandanaceae 923
Triuridaceae 923
Commelinids 923
Arecales 923
Arecaceae ( Palmae) 923
Commelinales 925
Commelinaceae 925
Poales 925
Cyperaceae 925
Poaceae (Gramineae) 926
Zingiberales 928
Musaceae 928
Zingiberaceae 929

Eudicots 929
Buxaceae 930
Trochodendraceae 931
Proteales 933
Nelumbonaceae 933
Proteaceae 935
Platanaceae 937
Ranunculales 940
Berberidaceae 940
Ranunculaceae 940
Core Eudicots 941
Gunnerales 941
Gunneraceae 941
Caryophyllales 941
Phytolaccaceae 941
Saxifragales 942
Cercidiphyllaceae 942
Haloragaceae 943
Hamamelidaceae 945
Iteaceae 945
Saxifragaceae 946
Rosids 946
Vitaceae 947
Myrtales 948
Lythraceae 948
Trapaceae 948
Myrtaceae 948
Onagraceae 950
Eurosids I (Fabids) 950
Fabales 950
Fabaceae ( Leguminosae) 950
Fagales 953
Betulaceae 953
Casuarinaceae 955
Fagaceae 956
Juglandaceae 961
Myricaceae 966
Nothofagaceae 966
Malpighiales 967
Clusiaceae 967
Euphorbiaceae 968
Salicaceae 970
Malpighiaceae 970
Oxalidales 971
Cunoniaceae 971
Elaeocarpaceae 971
Rosales 971
Moraceae 971
Rhamnaceae 971
Rosaceae 971 Ulmaceae 973
Eurosids II (Malvids) 976
Brassicales 976
Capparaceae 976
Malvales 976
Tiliaceae 976
Sapindales 977
Anacardiaceae 977
Meliaceae 978
Rutaceae 978
Sapindaceae 979
Asterids 981
Cornales 981
Cornaceae 981
Curtisiaceae 984
Hydrangeaceae 984
Ericales 985
Ebenaceae 985
Ericaceae 985
Theaceae 985
Euasterids I (Lamiids) 986
Icacinaceae 986
Garryales 987
Eucommiaceae 987
Gentianales 987
Gentianaceae 987
Rubiaceae 987
Lamiales 988
Avicenniaceae 988
Byblidaceae 988
Lentibulariaceae 988
Oleaceae 988
Solanales 988
Solanaceae 988
Euasterids II (Campanulids) 988
Bruniaceae 988
Quintiniaceae 988
Apiales 989
Araliaceae 989
Aquifoliales 989
Aquifoliaceae 989
Asterales 990
Asteraceae ( Compositae) 990
Menyanthaceae 991
Dipsacales 991
Caprifoliaceae 991
Cenozoic Floras 991

Conclusions 996

CHAPTER 23
Interactions Between Plants and Animals 999
Early Terrestrial Ecosystem Associations 1001
Animals on Land 1001
Early Plant--Animal Associations 1001
Herbivory 1003
Defenses Against Herbivory 1004
Mechanical Protection 1005
Chemical Defenses 1006
Fossil Evidence of Herbivory 1007
Coprolites 1007
Gut Contents 1011
Marginal Feeding 1011
Defoliation 1013
Leaf Miners 1013

Wound Tissue 1015 
Interactions with Vertebrates 1016
Herbivory 1016
Dentition 1018
Coprolites and Stomach Contents 1018
Dispersal 1018
Plants as Habitat 1019
Other Plant-Animal Interactions 1021
Mimicry 1021
Pollination 1022
Conclusions 1024
Appendix 1: Classification of Organisms 1027
Glossary 1031
References 1049

Index 1199
Similar Books

0 comments: