Parental Care: Evolution, Mechanisms, and Adaptive Significance



Author:
CHARLES T. SNOWDON & JAY S. ROSENBLATT 
Published in: ACADEMIC PRESS
Release Year: 1996
ISBN: 0-1 2-004525-7
Pages: 737
Edition: VOLUME 25
File Size: 40 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Parental Care: Evolution, Mechanisms, and Adaptive Significance

Since its first volume in 1965, Advances in the Study of Behavior has had the policy of publishing articles on varied topics in each volume. Volumes were eclectic and often had articles ranging in subject matter from insect behavior to human mother-infant interactions. The series became known for the high quality of its contributions and timeliness of its coverage of new developments in the field. The present twenty-fifth volume of this series represents a departure from that specific policy, but one which, we believe, does not violate the principles underlying this series. This is the first volume in which all of the articles are on a specific theme, namely, parental care. We chose this specific area of research because important advances are occurring across a broad taxonomic range, where researchers are using a wide variety of approaches to study this important aspect of behavior: ecological, functional, neuroendocrine, neurophysiological, psychological, developmental, social, and evolutionary. We invited as contributors leading researchers in the study of parental care, representing the broad taxonomic range and variety of approaches.
This volume, therefore, presents coverage of this area of research by those engaged in the most advanced research. To enable us to focus periodically on a specific area of behavior study, Advances in the Study of Behavior will periodically publish thematic volumes such as this one and will continue to publish eclectic volumes such as the previous ones. We believe that this policy will enable us to add depth to our coverage of advances in the study of behavior without sacrificing the breadth for which this series is known.

Content of Parental Care:  Evolution, Mechanisms, and Adaptive Significance



PART I

PARENTAL CARE AMONG INVERTEBRATES

AND EARLY VERTEBRATES
Parental Care in Invertebrates
STEPHEN T. TRUMBO

I. Introduction ..................................... 3
References ...................................... 40
11. Revisiting the Prime Movers of Care .................
IV. Parental Care Theory and Invertebrates. .............. V. Paternal Care: Uniparental Male versus Biparental Care. VI. Summary of....................................... 39
111. Physiology of Care. ...............................

Cause and Effect of Parental Care in Fishes:
An Epigenetic Perspective

STEPHEN S. CRAWFORD AND EUGENE K. BALON
I. Introduction. .................................... 53
11. The Diversity of Parental Care in Fishes .............. 55
111. A General Model of Life History in Fishes ............ 68
IV. Energy Requirements for Reproduction. .............. 72
V. Definitions of Parental Care ........................ 77
VI. A Review of Recent Work on Parental Care in Fishes... 81
VII. The Epigenesis of Piscine Parental Care. .............. 90
VIII. Conclusions ..................................... 98
References ...................................... 100

Parental Care among the Amphibia
MARTHA L. CRUMP

I. Introduction. .................................... 109
I1. Phylogenetic Distribution of Parental Care ............ 111
I11. Modes of Parental Care: Occurrence and Function ...... 113
IV. Geographic Distribution of Parental Care ............. 122
V. Distribution of Parental Care between the Sexes ........ 127
VI. Correlates of Parental Care ......................... 128
VII. Evolution of Parental Care ......................... 130
VIII. Flexibility in Parental Care ......................... 136
IX. Summary of....................................... 138
References ...................................... 140
An Overview of Parental Care among the Reptilia

CARL GANS

I. Introduction ..................................... 145
I1. The Reptilian Diversity ............................ 146
I11. Structural Types of Parental Investment ............... 148
IV. Physiological Types of Parental Investment ............ 150
V. Behavioral Types of Parental Investment .............. 152
VI. Opportunities for Study ............................ 153
VII. Summary of....................................... 154
References ...................................... 155

PART I1

ENDOCRINE. NEURAL. AND BEHAVIORAL
FACTORS GOVERNING PARENTAL CARE
AMONG MAMMALS AND BIRDS
Neural and Hormonal Control of Parental Behavior in Birds

JOHN D. BUNTIN

I. Introduction ..................................... 161
I1. Incubation Behavior .............................. 162
111. Defense of the Nest and Young ..................... IV. Parental Responses toward Young ................... 179
182
V. Summary of....................................... 199
References ...................................... 202
Biochemical Basis of Parental Behavior in the Rat
ROBERT S. BRIDGES
I. Behavioral Responses of Parental Rats ............... I1. Parental Behavior-A Developmental Perspective ...... 111. Physiological Underpinnings of Parental Behavior .......
Parental Care .................................... 233
Parental Care .................................... 235
1V. Neurochemical Elements and Experiential Aspects of
V. Overview: A Model for the Biochemical Regulation of
References ...................................... 237
Somatosensation and Maternal Care in Norway Rats
JUDITH M. STERN
I. Introduction ..................................... 243
I1. Somatosensation and Maternal Behavior .............. 244
111. Trigeminal Somatosensation and Maternal Nurturance ... 252
IV. Ventral Trunk Somatosensation and Nursing Behavior ... 267
References ...................................... 288
V. Somatosensation and Maternal Aggression ............ VI. Neurobiological Consequences and Implications ........ VII. General Conclusions and Summary ..................

Experiential Factors in Postpartum Regulation of Maternal Care
ALISON S. FLEMING. HYWEL D. MORGAN.
AND CAROLYN WALSH

I. Introduction ..................................... 295
I1. Types of Experience .............................. 296
“Good” Mothering ............................... 297
IV. The Physiology of Maternal Behavior ................. 299
V. Conclusion ...................................... 323
References ...................................... 326
111. Functional Adaptiveness of Experience in the Service of

Maternal Behavior in Rabbits: A Historical and
Multidisciplinary Perspective
AND JAY S. ROSENBLATT
GABRIELA GONZALEZ-MARISCAL
I. Introduction: Why Are Rabbits Interesting to Study? . . . .
11. Studying Rabbit Maternal Behavior in the Laboratory:
What Can We Measure?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
111. Participation of Estradiol, Progesterone, and Prolactin in
the Initiation of Maternal Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Maintaining Maternal Behavior after Parturition: The
Importance of the Interaction between Mother and
Young ......................................... V. Recapitulation and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI. Summary ....................................... References ......................................

Parental Behavior in Voles
ZUOXIN WANG AND THOMAS R. INSEL
I. Introduction ..................................... 11. Parental Behavior and Social Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . 111. Patterns of Parental Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Species Differences in the Rate of Litter Development. . . V. Environmental Factors Regulating Parental Behavior. . . .
VI. Neurobiological Basis of Parental Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . VII. Summary ....................................... References ......................................

Physiological, Sensory, and Experiential Factors
of Parental Care in Sheep

F. LEVY, K. M. KENDRICK, E. B. KEVERNE, R. H. PORTER,

AND A. ROMEYER

I. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. The Control of Maternal Reponsiveness to the Neonate. . 111. The Control of Maternal Selectivity to the Neonate . . . . .
IV. Conclusion ...................................... 411
V. Summary of....................................... 415
References ...................................... 416
Socialization. Hormones. and the Regulation of Maternal Behavior in

Nonhuman Simian Primates
CHRISTOPHER R . PRYCE

1. Introduction ..................................... 423
426
I11. Preadult Socialization and Maternal Behavior .......... 432
IV. Hormones and Maternal Behavior ................... 441
V. A Socialization-Neuroendocrine Model ............... 460
VI. Conclusions ..................................... 462
VII. Summary of....................................... 463
References ...................................... 465
I1. The “Context” of Maternal Behavior Regulation .......

PART I11 ~
FUNCTIONAL. ECOLOGICAL. AND ADAPTIVE

ASPECTS OF PARENTAL CARE

Field Studies of Parental Care in Birds: New Data Focus Questions on

Variation among Females
PATRICIA ADAIR GOWATY
Introduction ..................................... 477
What Do Males Do? What Do Females Do? ........... 479
Male Parental Care and Female Fitness: The Adaptive
Significance of Social Monogamy .................... 487
Sexual Conflict and Differential Parental Allocation ..... 494
Extra-Pair Paternity ............................... 496
Genetic Paternity and Paternal Care ................. 507
Maternal Care ................................... 516
Adaptive Significance of Parental Care in Birds ......... 517
The Future ...................................... 521
Summary of....................................... 522
References ...................................... 523

X CONTENTS

Parental Investment in Pinnipeds
FRITZ TRILLMICH

I. Introduction ..................................... I1. Background Information on Pinniped Systematics and
Phylogeny ....................................... I11. Parental Care Patterns in Pinnipeds .................. IV. Evidence for a Cost of Reproduction ................. V. Evidence for Differential Investment in Male and Female
Offspring ....................................... VI. Postweaning Investment? .......................... VII. Conclusion ...................................... References ......................................

Individual Differences in Maternal Style: Causes and
Consequences for Mothers and Offspring
LYNN A. FAIRBANKS

1. Introduction ..................................... I1. Individual Differences in Maternal Style .............. I11. Consequences of Variation in Maternal Style for the
Mother ......................................... IV. Consequences of Variation in Maternal Style for the
Offspring ....................................... V. Proximate Mechanisms ............................ VI. Conclusions ..................................... References ......................................

Mother-Infant Communication in Primates
DARIO MAESTRIPIERI AND JOSEP CALL
I. Introduction ..................................... 613
I1. Vocal Communication ............................. 614
I11. Visual and Tactile Communication ................... 626
IV. Parent-Infant Communication in Evolutionary
Perspective ...................................... 633
References ...................................... 635

Infant Care in Cooperatively Breeding Species
CHARLES T. SNOWDON

I. Introduction ..................................... 643
11. How Do Helpers Help? ............................ 644
I11. What Are the Factors That Influence Helping Behavior?. 661
IV. What Benefits Do Helpers Receive? .................. 667
VI. Future Research Directions ......................... 680
VII. Summary of....................................... 681
References ...................................... 683
V. What Mechanisms Inhibit Reproduction by Helpers?...

Index ........................................... 691
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