Plant Taxonomy

Plant Taxonomy


Author:
Tod F. Stuessy
Published in: Columbia University Press
Release Year: 2009
ISBN: 978-0-231-51864-2
Pages: 567
Edition: Second Edition
File Size: 28 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Plant Taxonomy


Most technical books quickly outlive their usefulness. Published in 1990, the first edition of Plant Taxonomy, although still serviceable in many ways, now lacks discussions of new avenues in plant systematics that have appeared during the past 15 years. Plant Taxonomy's second edition attempts to remedy this deficiency.
From a general perspective, these years have seen amazing changes in new data and their utility at all levels of the hierarchy from populations to orders and even to domains. Innovations in use of molecular data, tree-building algorithms, and statistical evaluations have changed the field immeasurably. This has not been a time of deep philosophical reflection that we did in the 1960s and 1970s. The 1990s was a period of experimenting with new data, especially those from DNA, and how best to handle them. The results have been nothing short of extraordinary (some might say even revolutionary), and systems biology is now viewed as more central to biology as a whole than ever before.
Another remarkable achievement during these 15 years has been the agreement of the systematic biology community on a single highest priority: the complete organismic inventorying of the planet (Systematics Agenda 2000; Anonymous 1994). Although this single objective is appealing in its simplicity and obvious in its importance to human welfare, we have not yet been able to marshall needed implementations to achieve this objective. Perhaps the next 15 years will demonstrate success in what is admittedly a more political arena. The new Web-based Encyclopedia of Life project offers hope in this direction.
With any second edition, an author obviously must decide on what exactly is the goal. With a brand new text, it is in some ways easier—a new logical structure is formulated, and the volume starts to take shape. Plant Taxonomy's second edition of Plant Taxonomy preserves the structure of the first edition and adds to it. This has resulted in some degree of tension in the book, due to so many changes in our field during the past 15 years. I have also elected to leave many of the older literature
citations and add new ones to them, hence providing a more than a 40-year sweep of references for our field. This seemed to me more useful than eliminating all earlier references and replacing them with only the more modern citations. With new topics, however, such as in the chapters  (21 and 22) dealing with molecular data, I have obviously focused on the recent papers. As for figures to illustrate points made in the text, I have kept many of the previous ones, if they still seemed to communicate the points effectively, but I have also changed and added others (89 new plates) based on the nature of the data and/or visual appeal.
To provide proper literature coverage for this second edition, the following journals were systematically reviewed from 1989–2006: American Journal of Botany Annual Review of Ecology, Systematics and Evolution (formerly Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics); Cladistics; Evolution; Molecular Ecology; Plant Systematics and Evolution; Systematic Botany; Systematic Biology (formerly Systematic Zoology); and Taxon. The cutoff date for addition of most new literature was 31 Dec 2006, with selected additions up until 1 Oct 2007. Articles from many other journals have also been incorporated, obviously, but these formed the core of the new information.
New books have also been consulted, and these have been liberally cited as an aid to the interested reader. Some important, overlooked, older references have also been added for more completeness. In a text of this broad scope, it is obviously impossible to discuss and analyze all issues in depth. My philosophy xviii has been to provide enough literature citations so that the reader has a basis for consulting the primary literature on nearly any topic. All told, more than 3000 new citations have been added. The objective has been to open doors and windows to the numerous and complex topics in systematic botany rather than to provide detailed analyses for each. Obviously, some topics are covered in more depth than others depending upon my own interests.
Plant Taxonomy's second edition has also provided the opportunity to redress deficiencies in the first edition. Several helpful reviews of Plant Taxonomy (Jensen 1990a; Austin 1991; Campbell 1991; Keener 1991; Stevens 1991a; Mabberley 1992; Morrison 1993) have shown the need to address specific topics in more detail and to correct errors of writing, editing, and production. James Runkle in 1993 also sent me student evaluations of the book that were extremely helpful.
I hope that the revised edition of Plant Taxonomy will prove as serviceable as the first. For my part, I have
learned an incredible amount regarding new developments in our complex and challenging field. It is not easy being a plant systematist—but I can’t possibly imagine being anything else.

Content of Plant Taxonomy



P A R T O N E Principles of Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Section 1 The Meaning of Classifi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
chapter 1 A Few Defi nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Classifi cation, Taxonomy, and Systematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Identifi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Biosystematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Experimental Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
New Systematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Comparative Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
chapter 2 The Relevance of Systematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Importance of Systematics in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Contributions of Systematics to Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
chapter 3 The Importance and Universality of Classifi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Process of Classifi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Hierarchical System of Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
chapter 4 Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
General Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Roles of Characters and States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Kinds of Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Criteria for Selecting Characters and States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Section 2 Different Approaches to Biological Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Chapter 5 The Anatomy of Classification and the Artificial Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Aesthetics and Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Process of Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Artificial Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Chapter 6 Natural and Phyletic Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Natural Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Phyletic (Evolutionary) Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Definitions of “Naturalness” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Chapter 7 The Phenetic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
History of Phenetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Methodology of Phenetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Impact of Phenetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Chapter 8 The Cladistic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
History of Cladistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Methodology of Cladistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Formal Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Impact of Cladistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Chapter 9 Evaluations of the Three Major Approaches and Explicit Phyletics . . . . . . 111
Historical Influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Previous Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Evaluation of the Process of Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Evaluation of the Resultant Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Explicit Phyletics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Hypothetical Taxa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Section 3 Concepts of Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Chapter 10 The Taxonomic Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Logical Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Chapter 11 The Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
History of Species Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Reality of Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Naturalness of Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Species as Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Current Species Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Recommended Species Concept for General Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Chapter 12 The Subspecies, Variety, and Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
History of Varietal and Subspecific Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Difficulties in Application of Varietal and Subspecific Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Biosystematic Infraspecific Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Recommended Infraspecific Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Chapter 13 The Genus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
History of Generic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Types of Data Used to Delimit Genera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Phenetic Delimitation of Genera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Cladistic Delimitation of Genera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Naturalness of Genera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Remodeling of Genera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Paleontological Genera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Monotypic Genera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

chapter 14 The Family and Higher Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
History of Concepts of Higher Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Naturalness of Higher Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Higher Categories as Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Size of Higher Taxa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Vertical vs. Horizontal Classifi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Practical Diffi culties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Types of Data Used with Higher Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Numerical Approaches with Morphological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Evolution of Higher Taxa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

P A R T T W O Taxonomic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Section 4 Types of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
chapter 15 Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
History of Morphology in Plant Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
General Morphological Texts and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Types of Morphological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Investments for Gathering Morphological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Effi cacy of Morphological Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Special Concerns with Morphological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
chapter 16 Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
History of Anatomy in Plant Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
General Anatomical Texts and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Types of Anatomical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Investments for Gathering Anatomical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Effi cacy of Anatomical Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Special Concerns with Anatomical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Chapter 17 Embryology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
History of Embryology in Plant Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
General Embryological Texts and References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Types of Embryological Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Investments for Gathering Embryological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Efficacy of Embryological Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Special Concerns with Embryological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Chapter 18 Palynology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
History of Palynology in Plant Taxonomy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
General Palynological Texts and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Types of Palynological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Investments for Gathering Palynological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Efficacy of Palynological Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Special Concerns with Palynological Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Chapter 19 Phytochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
History of Phytochemistry in Plant Taxonomy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
General Phytochemical and Chemotaxonomic Texts and References. . . . . . . . 240
Types of Phytochemical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Investments for Gathering Phytochemical Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Efficacy of Phytochemical Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Special Concerns with Phytochemical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Chapter 20 Cytology and Cytogenetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
History of Cytology and Cytogenetics in Plant Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
General Cytological and Cytogenetic Texts and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Genomic Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Types of Cytological and Cytogenetic Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Investments for Gathering Cytological and Cytogenetic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Efficacy of Cytological and Cytogenetic Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy . . 269
Special Concerns with Cytological and Cytogenetic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

Chapter 21 Molecular Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
History of Molecular Biology in Plant Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
General Molecular Biological and Molecular Systematics Texts and References. . . . . . . . 275
Types of Molecular Biological Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Investments for Gathering Molecular Biological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Efficacy of Molecular Biological Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Special Concerns with Molecular Biological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Chapter 22 Genetics and Population Genetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
History of Genetics and Population Genetics in Plant Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
General Genetics and Population Genetics Texts and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Types of Genetic and Population Genetic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Investments for Gathering Genetic and Population Genetic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Efficacy of Genetic and Population Genetic Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . 305
Special Concerns with Genetic and Population Genetic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Chapter 23 Reproductive Biology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
History of Reproductive Biology in Plant Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
General Reproductive Biological Texts and References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Types of Reproductive Biological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Investments for Gathering Reproductive Biological Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Efficacy of Reproductive Biological Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Special Concerns with Reproductive Biological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Chapter 24 Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
History of Ecology in Plant Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
General Ecological Texts and References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Types of Ecological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Investments for Gathering Ecological Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Efficacy of Ecological Data in the Taxonomic Hierarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Special Concerns with Ecological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

Section 5 The Handling of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Chapter 25 The Gathering and Storage of Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Collection of Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Storage of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Evaluation of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Relative Efficacy of Different Kinds of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Chapter 26 The Presentation of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
History of Graphics in Plant Taxonomy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
General Graphics References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Types of Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Graphic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
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