Principles of Developmental Genetics

Principles of Developmental Genetics


Author:
Sally A. Moody
Published in: Academic Press
Release Year: 2007
ISBN: 978-0-12-369548-2
Pages: 1094
Edition: Fourth Edition
File Size: 19 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Principles of Developmental Genetics


The ability of researchers to answer experimental questions greatly depends on the available technologies. New technologies lead to novel observations and field-changing discoveries and influence the types of questions that can be asked. Today’s recently available technologies include sequencing and analyzing the genomes of human and model organisms, genome-wide expression profiling, and high-throughput genomic and genetic analyses. The information provided by these approaches is enabling us to begin to understand the complexity of many biological processes through the elucidation of gene regulatory networks, signaling pathway networks, and epigenetic modifications.
Principles of Developmental Genetics book describes many lines of research that are being impacted by these new technologies, including developmental genetics and the related fields of clinical genetics, birth defects research, stem cell biology, regenerative medicine, and evolutionary biology. The field of developmental genetics, or the study of how genes influence the developmental processes of an organism, has been influenced by new technologies and by interactions with other fields of study throughout its history. 
The concept of a genetic basis of development began in “modern” times at the intersection of descriptive embryology and cytology. Modern histological techniques were developed in the mid-19th century, largely by Wilhelm His so that he could study cell division in the neural tube, which enabled visualization of the cell nucleus, chromosomes, and the discrete steps of mitosis.
Theodor Boveri cleverly applied these improved microscopic techniques to transparent marine embryos to demonstrate that each parent contributes equivalent groups of chromosomes to the zygote and that each chromosome is an independently inherited unit. Importantly, he noted that if an embryo contains the incorrect number or improper combination of chromosomes, it develops abnormally.
However, many early embryologists rejected the idea that development is driven by prepackaged heritable particles because it seemed too similar to the idea of “preformation”: the concept that development is driven by predetermined factors or “forces” (sometimes described in rather mystical terms).
Wilhelm Roux, an advocate of studying the embryo from a mechanistic point of view, was a leader in the approach of manipulating the embryo with microsurgical techniques to elucidate cause and effects between component parts (experimental embryology). By using an animal model whose embryos were large, developed external to the mother, could be surgically manipulated with sharpened forceps and cultured in simple salt media (i.e., amphibians), he rejected the role of predetermined factors and demonstrated the importance of external (epigenetic) influences and cell-cell interactions in regulating developmental programs. Experimental embryologists further refined their skills at dissecting small bits of tissue from the embryo, recombining them with other tissues in culture or transplanting them to ectopic regions in the embryo. This work led to the invention of tissue culture by Ross Harrison and the discovery of tissue inductions by Hans Spemann.
While experimental embryology was thriving, T. H. Morgan founded the field of Drosophila genetics. Also trained as an embryologist, Morgan was skeptical of Boveri’s idea of heritable packets and directed his studies towards understanding the principles of inheritance. For several decades, the two fields had little impact on one another. Interestingly, however, after a few decades of study of the fruit fly, Morgan’s work supported the idea of discrete intracellular particles that directed heritable traits, which he named “genes.” Nonetheless, the fields of experimental embryology and genetics remained fairly separate entities with distinct goals and points of view. Embryologists were elucidating the interactions that are important for the development of numerous tissues and organs, whereas geneticists were focused on the fundamentals of gene inheritance, regulation of expression, and discovering the genetic code. Indeed, elucidating the genetic basis of vertebrate development was delayed until new technologies in molecular biology and cloning were devised.
From the field of bacterial and viral genetics came the techniques for cloning eukaryotic genes and constructing vectors for controlling expression. From the classical genetic studies in fly and nematode came the rationale for Mutagenizing the entire genome and screening for developmental abnormalities.
Important regulatory genes were discovered in these invertebrates, and their counterparts were discovered in many other animals by homology cloning approaches. Thus was born the modern field that we call developmental genetics.

Content of Principles of Developmental Genetics



THE IMPACT OF GENETIC AND GENOMIC TOOLS ON
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
1 Untangling the Gordian Knot: Cell Signaling Events That
Instruct Development 2
RENE ́E V. HOCH AND PHILIPPE SORIANO
2 Finding Gene Expression Changes Using Microarray
Technology 32
TADAYOSHI HAYATA AND KEN W. Y. CHO
3 Chemical and Functional Genomic Approaches to Study
Stem Cell Biology and Regeneration 45
WEN XIONG AND SHENG DING
4 Assessing Neural Stem Cell Properties Using Large-Scale
Genomic Analysis 69
SOOJUNG SHIN, JONATHAN D. CHESNUT, AND MAHENDRA S. RAO
5 Epigenetic Influences on Gene Expression Pathways 92
SUNDEEP KALANTRY AND TERRY MAGNUSON
6 New Insights into Vertebrate Origins 114
BILLIE J. SWALLA
7 Understanding Human Birth Defects Through Model 129
Organism Studies
FEYZA ENGIN AND BRENDAN LEE
II EARLY EMBRYOLOGY, FATE DETERMINATION, AND
PATTERNING
8 Germ Line Determinants and Oogenesis 150
KELLY M. HASTON AND RENEE A. REIJO PERA
9 Patterning the Anterior–Posterior Axis During Drosophila
Embryogenesis 173
KRISTY L. KENYON
10 Anterior–Posterior Patterning in Mammals 201
SIGOLE`NE M. MEILHAC
11 Signaling Cascades, Gradients, and Gene Networks in
Dorsal/Ventral Patterning 216
GIRISH S. RATNAPARKHI AND ALBERT J. COUREY
12 Early Development of Epidermis and Neural Tissue 241
KEIJI ITOH AND SERGEI Y. SOKOL
13 Formation of the Embryonic Mesoderm 258
LISA L. CHANG AND DANIEL S. KESSLER
14 Endoderm 295
DE ́BORA SINNER, JAMES M. WELLS, AND AARON M. ZORN
15 Notch Signaling: A Versatile Tool for the Fine Patterning
of Cell Fate in Development 316
AJAY B. CHITNIS
16 Multiple Roles of T-box Genes 341
L. A. NAICHE AND VIRGINIA E. PAPAIOANNOU
III MORPHOGENETIC AND CELL MOVEMENTS
17 Gastrulation in Vertebrates 360
LILIANNA SOLNICA-KREZEL AND DIANE S. SEPICH
18 Regulation of Tissue Separation in the Amphibian
Embryo 392
HERBERT STEINBEISSER

19 Role of the Basement Membrane in Cell Migration 404
KIYOJI NISHIWAKI AND YUKIHIKO KUBOTA
20 Epithelial Morphogenesis 424
RONIT WILK AND HOWARD D. LIPSHITZ
21 Branching Morphogenesis of Mammalian Epithelia 448
JAMIE DAVIES
22 The Roles of Ephrin–Eph in Morphogenesis 467
IRA O. DAAR
IV ECTODERMAL ORGANS
23 Neural Cell Fate Determination 500
STEPHEN N. SANSOM AND FREDERICK J. LIVESEY
24 Pathfinding and Patterning of Axonal Connections 525
STEPHANIE A. LINN, STEPHANIE R. KADISON, AND CATHERINE E. KRULL
25 Retinal Development 548
KATHRYN B. MOORE AND MONICA L. VETTER
26 Neural Crest Determination 574
ROBERTO MAYOR
27 Determination of Preplacodal Ectoderm and Sensory
Placodes 590
SALLY A. MOODY
28 Molecular Genetics of Tooth Development 615
IRMA THESLEFF
29 The Inner Ear 631
DONNA F. FEKETE AND ULRIKE J. SIENKNECHT
30 Craniofacial Formation and Congenital Defects 656
S. A. BRUGMANN AND J. A. HELMS
V MESODERMAL ORGANS
31 Induction of the Cardiac Lineage 680
ANDREW S. WARKMAN AND PAUL A. KRIEG

32 Heart Patterning and Congenital Defects 698
JOHN W. BELMONT
33 Blood Vessel Formation 721
KARINA YANIV AND BRANT M. WEINSTEIN
34 Blood Induction and Embryonic Formation 755
XIAOYING BAI AND LEONARD I. ZON
35 Topics in Vertebrate Kidney Formation: A Comparative
Perspective 778
THOMAS M. SCHULTHEISS
36 Development of the Genital System 805
HONGLING DU AND HUGH S. TAYLOR
37 Diaphragmatic Embryogenesis and Human Congenital
Diaphragmatic Defects 829
KATE G. ACKERMAN AND DAVID R. BEIER
38 Formation of Vertebrate Limbs 847
YINGZI YANG
39 Skeletal Development 866
PETER G. ALEXANDER, AMANDA T. BOYCE, AND ROCKY S. TUAN
VI ENDODERMAL ORGANS
40 Patterning the Embryonic Endoderm into Presumptive
Organ Domains 908
BILLIE A. MOORE-SCOTT AND JAMES M. WELLS
41 Developmental Genetics of the Pulmonary System 932
THOMAS J. MARIANI
42 Pancreas Development and Stem Cells 946
MAUREEN GANNON

43 Early Liver Development and Hepatic Progenitor
Cells 982
JAY D. KORMISH AND KENNETH S. ZARET
44 Intestinal Stem Cells in Physiologic Regeneration and
Disease 1004
DAVID H. SCOVILLE, XI C. HE, GOO LEE, TOSHIRO SATO, TERRENCE A. BARRETT,
AND LINHENG LI

INDEX 1023
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