Sociobiology the New Synthesis

Sociobiology the New Synthesis

Edward O. Wilson
Published in: Library of Congress Catalog
Release Year: 1975
ISBN: 0-674-81621-8
Edition: First Edition
File Size: 36 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English

Description of Sociobiology the New Synthesis

Modern sociobiology is being created by gifted investigators who work primarily in population biology, invertebrate zoology, including entomology especially, and vertebrate zoology. Because my training and research experience were fortuitously in the first two subjects and there was some momentum left from writing The Insect Societies, I decided to^learn enough about vertebrates to attempt a general synthesis. The generosity which experts in this third field showed me, patiently guiding me through films and publications, correcting my errors, and offering the kind of enthusiastic encouragement usually reserved for promising undergraduate students, is a testament to the commonality of science. My new colleagues also critically read most of the chapters in the early draft. The remaining portions were reviewed by population biologists and anthropologists. I am especially grateful to Robert L. Trivers for reading most of the book and discussing it with me from the time of its conception. Others who reviewed portions of the manuscript, with the chapter numbers listed after their names, are Ivan Chase (13), even DeVore (27), John F. Eisenberg (23, 24, 25, 26), Richard D. Estes (24), Robert Fagen (1-5, 7), Madhav Gadgil (1-5), Robert A. Hinde (7), Bert Holldobler (8-13), F. Clark Howell (27), Sarah Blaffer Hrdy (1-13, 15-16, 27), Alison Jolly (26), A. Ross Kiester (7, 11-13), Bruce R. Levin (4, 5), Peter R. Marler (7), Ernst Mayr (11-13), Donald W. Pfaff (11), Katherine Ralls (15), Jon Seger (1-6, 8-13, 27), W. John Smith (8-10), Robert M. Woollacott (19), James Weinrich (1-5, 8-13), and Amotz Zahavi (5).
Illustrations, unpublished manuscripts, and technical advice were supplied by R. D. Alexander, Herbert Bloch, S. A. Boorman, Jack Bradbury, F. H. Bronson, W. L. Brown, Francine and P. A. Buckley, Noam Chomsky, Malcolm Coe, P. A. Corning, lain Douglas-Hamilton, Mary Jane West Eberhard, John F. Eisenberg, R. D. Estes, O. R. Floody, Charles Galt, Valerius Geist, Peter Haas, W. J. Hamilton 111, Bert Holldobler, Sarah Hrdy, Alison Jolly, J. H. Kaufmann, M. H. A. Keenleyside, A. R. Kiester, Hans Kummer, J. A. Kurland, M. R. Lein, B. R. Levin, P. R. Levitt, P. R. Marler, Ernst Mayr, G. M. McKay, D. B. Means, A. J. Meyerriecks, Martin Moynihan, R. A. Paynter, Jr., D. W. Pfaff, W. P. Porter, Katherine Ralls, Lynn Riddiford, P. S. Rodman, L. L. Rogers, Thelma E. Rowell, W. E. Schevill, N. G. Smith, Judy A. Stamps, R. L. Trivers, J. W. Truman, F. R. Walther, Peter Weygoldt, W. Wickler, R. H. Wiley, E. N. Wilmsen, E. E. Williams, and D. S. Wilson.
Kathleen M. Horton assisted closely in bibliographic research, checked many technical details, and typed the manuscript through two intricate drafts. Nancy Clemente edited the manuscript, providing many helpful suggestions concerning organization and exposition. Sarah Landry executed the drawings of animal societies presented in Chapters 20-27. In the case of the vertebrate species, her compositions are among the first to represent entire societies, in the correct demographic proportions, with as many social interactions displayed as can plausibly be included in one scene. In order to make the drawings as accurate as possible, we sought and were generously given the help of the following biologists who had conducted research on the sociobiology of the individual species: Robert T. Bakker (reconstruction of the appearance and possible social behavior of dinosaurs), Brian Bertram (lions), Iain Douglas-Hamilton (African elephants), Richard D. Estes (wild dogs, wildebeest), F. Clark Howell (reconstructions of primitive man and the Pleistocene mammal fauna), Alison Jolly (ring-tailed lemurs), James Malcolm (wild dogs), John H. Kaufmann (whip-tailed wallabies), Hans Kummer (hamadryas baboons), George B. Schaller (gorillas), and Glen E. Woolfenden (Florida scrub-jays). Also, S. Barghoorn, Leslie A. Garay, and Rolla M. Tryon added advice on the depiction of the surrounding vegetation. Other drawings in this book were executed by Joshua B. Clark and most of the graphs and diagrams by William G. Minty.
Certain passages have been taken with little or no change from The Insect Societies, by E. O. Wilson (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971); these include short portions of Chapters 1, 3, 6, 8, 9,  3, 14, 16, and 17 in the present book as well as a substantial portion of Chapter 20, which presents a brief review of the social insects. Other excerpts have been taken from A Primer of Population Biology, by E. O. Wilson and W. H. Bossert (Sinauer Associates, 1971), and Life on Earth, by E. O. Wilson et al. (Sinauer Associates, 1973).  Pages 106-117 come from my article "Group Selection and Its Significance for Ecology" (BioScience, vol. 23, pp. 631-638, 1973), copyright © 1973 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Other passages have been adapted from various of my articles in Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Am erica (vol. 19, pp. 20-22, 1973); Science (vol. 163, p. 1184, 1969; vol. 179, p. 466, 1973; copyright ©1969, 1973, by the American Association for the Advancement of Science); Scientific American (vol. 227, pp. 53-54, 1972); Chemical Ecology (E. Sondheimer and J. B. Simeone, eds., Academic Press, 1970); Man and Beast: Comparative Social Behavior (J. F. Eisenberg and W. S. Dillon, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970). The quotations from the Bhagavad-Gita are taken from the Peter Pauper Press translation. The editors and publishers are thanked for their permission to reproduce these excerpts.
I wish further to thank the following agencies and individuals for permission to reproduce materials for which they hold the copyright: Academic Press, Inc.; Aldine Publishing Company; American Association for the Advancement of Science, representing Science,- A m American Midland Naturalist; American Zoologist; Annual Reviews, Inc., Associated University Presses, Inc., representing Bucknell University Press; Balliere Tindall, Ltd.,- Professor George W. Barlow; Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd.; E. J. Brill Co.; Cambridge University Press; Dr. M. J. Coe; Cooper Ornithological Society, representing The Condor,- American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, representing Copeia-, Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft, representing Journal fur Ornithologie; Dr. Iain Douglas-Hamilton (Ph.D. thesis, Oxford University); Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc.; Duke University Press and the Ecological Society of America, representing Ecology,- Dr. Mary Jane West Eberhard; Professor Thomas Eisner,- Evolution; Dr. W. Faber,- W. H. Freeman and Company, representing Scientific Am erican; Gustav Fischer Verlag; Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc., including representation for Psychosomatic Medicine, Dr. Charles S. Henry; the Herpetologists' League, representing Herpetologica; Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.; Dr. J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff,- Houghton Mifflin Company; Indiana University Press; Journal o f M ammalogy; Dr. Heinrich Kutter; Professor James E. Lloyd,- Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc.; Professor Peter Marler,- McGrawHill Book Company,- Masson et Cie, representing Insectes Sociaux; Dr. L. David Mech; Methuen and Co., Ltd.; Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan,- Dr. Eugene L. Nakamura,- Nature, for Mac-millan (Journals), Ltd.; Professor Charles Noirot; Pergamon Press, Inc.,-Professor Donald W. Pfaff; Professor Daniel Otte; Plenum Publishing Corporation; The Quarterly Review of Biology; Dr. Katherine Rails; Random House, Inc.; Professor Carl W. Rettenmeyer,- the Royal Society, London,- Science Journal; Dr. Neal G. Smith; Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.; Dr. Robert Stumper; University of California Press; The University of Chicago Press, including representation of The A m erican Naturalist; Walter de Gruyter and Co.,- Dr. Peter Weygoldt; Professor W. Wickler; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; Worth Publishers, Inc.,- The Zoological Society of London, representing Journal o f Zoology; Zoologischer Garten Koln (Aktiengesellschaft).
Finally, much of my personal research reported in the book has been supported continuously by the National Science Foundation during the past sixteen years. It is fair to say that I would not have reached the point from which a synthesis could be attempted if it had not been for this generous public support. 

Content of Sociobiology the New Synthesis

Part I Social E v o l u t i o n 2
1 The Morality of the Gene 3
2 Elementary Concepts of Sociobiology 7
The Multiplier Effect 11
The Evolutionary Pacemaker and Social Drift 13
The Concept of Adaptive Demography 14
The Kinds and Degrees of Sociality 16
The Concept of Behavioral Scaling 19
The Dualities of Evolutionary Biology 21
Reasoning in Sociobiology 27
3 The Prime Movers of Social Evolution 32
Phylogenetic Inertia 33
Ecological Pressure 37
The Reversibility of Social Evolution 62
4 The Relevant Principles of Population Biology 63
Microevolution 64
Heritability 68
Polygenes and Linkage Disequilibrium 70
The Maintenance of Genetic Variation 70
Phenodeviants and Genetic Assimilation 72
Inbreeding and Kinship 73
Assortative and Disassortative Mating 80
Population Growth 80
Density Dependence 82
Intercompensation 89
Population Cycles of Mammals 90
Life Tables 90
The Stable Age Distribution 92
Reproductive Value 93
Reproductive Effort 95
The Evolution of Life Histories 96
r and K Selection 99
The Evolution of Gene Flow 103
5 Group Selection and Altruism 106
Group Selection 106
intergenic (Interpopulation) Selection 107
Kin Selection 117
Reciprocal Altruism 120
Altruistic Behavior 121
The Field of Righteousness 129

Part II Social Mechanism s 130
6 Group Size, Reproduction, and
Time-Energy Budgets 131
The Determinants of Group Size 132
Adjustable Group Size 137
The Multiplication and Reconstitution of Societies 138
Time-Energy Budgets 142
7 The Development and Modification
of Social Behavior 144
Tracking the Environment with Evolutionary Change 145
The Hierarchy of Organismic Responses 151
Tracking the Environment with Morphogenetic Change 152
Nongenetic Transmission of Maternal Experience 152
Hormones and Behavior 153
Learning 156
Socialization 159
Play 164
Tradition, Culture, and Invention of 168
Tool Using 172
8 Communication: Basic Principles 176
Human versus Animal Communication 177
Discrete versus Graded Signals 178
The Principle of Antithesis 179
Signal Specificity 181
Signal Economy 183
The Increase of Information 185
The Measurement of Communication 194
The Pitfalls of Information Analysis 199
Redundancy 200
9 Communication: Functions and
Complex Systems 201
The Functions of Communication 202
The Higher Classification of Signal Function 216
Complex Systems 218
10 Communication: Origins and Evolution 224
The Sensory Channels 231
Evolutionary Competition among Sensory Channels 240
11 Aggression 242
Aggression and Competition 243
The Mechanisms of Competition 244

The Limits of Aggression 247
The Proximate Causes of Aggression 248
Human Aggression 254
12 Social Spacing, Including Territory 256
Individual Distance 257
A "Typical" Territorial Species 259
The History of the Territory Concept 260
The Multiple Forms of Territory 261
The Theory of Territorial Evolution 266
Special Properties of Territory 270
Territories and Population Regulation 274
Interspecific Territoriality 276
13 Dominance Systems 279
History of the Dominance Concept 281
Examples of Dominance Orders 282
Special Properties of Dominance Orders 286
The Advantages of Being Dominant 287
The Compensations of Being Subordinate 290
The Determinants of Dominance 291
Intergroup Dominance 295
Interspecific Dominance 296
Scaling in Aggressive Behavior 296
14 Roles and Castes 298
The Adaptive Significance of Roles 299
The Optimization of Caste Systems 300
Roles in Vertebrate Societies 309
Roles in Human Societies 312
15 Sex and Society 314
The Meaning of Sex 315
Evolution of the Sex Ratio 316
Sexual Selection 318
The Theory of Parental Investment 324
The Origins of Polygamy 327
The Origins of Monogamy and Pair Bonding 330
Communal Displays 331
Other Ultimate Causes of Sexual Dimorphism 334
16 Parental Care 336
The Ecology of Parental Care 336
Parent-Offspring Conflict 341
Parental Care and Social Evolution in the Insects 344
Parental Care and Social Evolution in the Primates 346
Other Animal Ontogenies 348

Alloparental Care 349
Adoption of 352
17 Social Symbioses 353
Social Commensalism 354
Social Mutualism 356
Parabiosis 358
Mixed Species Groups in Vertebrates 358
Trophic Parasitism 361
Xenobiosis 362
Temporary Social Parasitism in Insects 362
Brood Parasitism in Birds 364
Slavery in Ants 368
Inquilinism in Ants 371
The General Occurrence of Social Parasitism in Insects 373
Breaking the Code 375

Part III The Social Species 378
18 The Four Pinnacles of Social Evolution 379
19 The Colonial Microorganisms and Invertebrates 383
The Adaptive Basis of Coloniality 386
General Evolutionary Trends in Coloniality 387
Slime Molds and Colonial Bacteria 387
The Coelenterates 393
The Ectoprocts 394
20 The Social Insects 397
What Is a Social Insect? 398
The Organization of Insect Societies 399
The Prime Movers of Higher Social Evolution in Insects 415
The Social Wasps 418
The Ants 421
The Social Bees 428
The Termites 433
21 The Cold-Blooded Vertebrates 438
Fish Schools 438
The Social Behavior of Frogs 442
The Social Behavior of Reptiles 444
22 The Birds 448
The Crotophaginae 450
The Jays 451

23 Evolutionary Trends within the Mammals 456
General Patterns 468
The Whiptail Wallaby (Macropus parryi) 469
The Black-tail Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) 472
Dolphins 473
24 The Ungulates and Elephants 479
The Ecological Basis of Social Evolution 484
Chevrotains (Tragulidae) 486
The Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) 486
The Blue Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) 490
The African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) 491
25 The Carnivores 499
The Black Bear ( U Ursus americanus) 502
The Coati (Nasua narica) 502
The Lion (Panthera leo) 504
Wolves and Dogs (Canidae) 504
26 The Nonhuman Primates 514
The Distinctive Social Traits of Primates 514
The Ecology of Social Behavior in Primates 518
The Lesser Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) 526
The Orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) 526
The Dusky Titi (Callicebus moloch) 527
The White-Handed Gibbon (Hylobates la r) 528
The Mantled Howler (Alouatta villosa) 529
The Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) 530
The Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) 531
The Eastern Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) 535
The Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) 539
27 Man: From Sociobiology to Sociology 547
Plasticity of Social Organization 548
Barter and Reciprocal Altruism 551
Bonding, Sex, and Division of Labor 553
Role-Playing and Polyethism 554
Communication 555
Culture, Ritual, and Religion 559
Ethics 562
Esthetics 564
Territoriality and Tribalism 564
Early Social Evolution 565
Later Social Evolution 569
The Future 574
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