ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY Adaptation and environment

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY Adaptation and environment
 
Author:
Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut
Publisher:
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
ISBN No: 521 22178 1
Release at: 1975
Pages: 584
Edition:
Second Edition
File Size: 73 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY Adaptation and environment

The reason for the second edition of a book should be to make it better. This may be done by improving existing material and by updating the information it contains, and I have tried to do both. Every chapter is revised, important new information is added, and some chapters cover their subjects in greater depth than in the first edition. As before, I consider that the understanding of principles is more important than the mere accumulation of facts that can smother in boredom the curiosity of interested young people. I have selected new material with this in mind.
Those readers who teach physiology may wish to see a listing of changes and improvements. The respiration chapters contain new material on fish respiration, on lungless salamanders, and on the oxygen supply to birds' eggs. The chapters on blood and circulation are expanded and clarified. The chapter on food and feeding contains new material on marine waxes and their importance in the food chain, on nitrogen fixation in termites and in corals, and a substantial expansion of the discussion of noxious plant compounds and chemical defenses. In the chapter on metabolism, new material includes discussions of the oxygen minimum layer in the ocean and of the effects of high pressure and high altitude. The treatment of problems of scaling and body size is completely revised. The chapters on temperature and heart problems contain new material on thermal tolerance and heat death. New concepts on the biological importance of fever are discussed, and recent research on the temperature regulation of birds and bees is included. The chapters on osmoregulation and excretion have been clarified, and recent changes in our concepts of how urine is concentrated in the mammalian kidney are clearly explained.
The three chapters toward the end of the book, those on muscle, nerve, and hormones, are completely revised and much new material is added. The expanded treatment ranges from new concepts of ameboid movement and the function of flagella to the molecular events in muscle contraction. Animal locomotion and biomechanics are given a prominent place, for moving about is an important characteristic of living animals.
The material on sensory perception is updated, especially in regard to electric and magnetic stimuli and the function of the lateral line of fishes. The explanation of the nature of nerve impulses and action potentials is completely rewritten and expanded to meet current requirements. The last chapter, on physiological integration, has also been thoroughly revised. The close connection between the central nervous system and endocrine function, which was stressed in the first edition, is clarified through discussions of exciting new developments in neuroendocrine function.
Instead of an enumeration of nearly endless numbers of hormones - to be memorized by students with retentive brains - there are clear tables that outline the important principles of modern endocrinology. As in the first edition, some essential background material that already should be known to the students is placed in appendixes, not because it is considered peripheral, but because it is so important that it must be available to those who have forgotten and need a concise restatement of basic facts. The International System of Units (the SI system) is clearly and accurately presented in Appendix A (as it was in the first edition). In addition, the inevitable transition to the common use of SI units is helped by the side-by-side use in the text of traditional units and the corresponding SI units. Two important fields, vitamins, and reproduction are treated very lightly or not at all. The simple reason is that much of this material is already familiar.
Lists of vitamins and their deficiency symptoms are of little use; they are found in books the student has met in courses on health, home economics, and introductory biology. A deeper understanding of the metabolic roles of vitamins requires a background in biochemistry that is beyond the scope of this book. The basics of human reproduction should already be familiar, and animal reproduction is a vast field that includes so much morphology and developmental biology that it is best treated as a separate subject. I hope that the changes increase the usefulness of the book and that both students and colleagues will let me know what I should have done better.

Content of ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY Adaptation and environment


1 Respiration in water 7
Gases in air and water 8 
Aquatic respiration 15
References and Additional reading 23

2 Respiration in air 25
Respiratory organs 27
Respiratory movements 28 
Role of the skin in respiration 29 
Mammalian lungs 31 
Regulation of respiration 34
Air-breathing fish 37
Bird respiration 43
Insect respiration 49
References and Additional reading 61

3 Blood 64
Oxygen transport in blood 65 
Carbon dioxide transport in blood 81
References and Additional reading 87

4 Circulation 89
General principles 89
Vertebrate circulation 91
Invertebrate circulation 113 
Blood coagulation and hemostasis 117
References and Additional reading 1 19

PART TWO: FOOD AND ENERGY 123
5 Food, fuel, and energy 125
Feeding 126
Digestion 131
Nutrition 142 
Noxious compounds and chemical defense 152
References and Additional reading 157

6 Energy metabolism 161
The metabolic rate of 162 
Energy storage: fat and glycogen 164
Effect of oxygen concentration on the metabolic rate of 165 
Problems of diving mammals and birds 169 
Metabolic rates and body size 183 
Body size and problems of scaling 190 
Energy cost of locomotion 192
Effect of high altitude 196
References and Additional reading J 99

PART THREE: TEMPERATURE 203
7 Temperature effects 205
Physiological effects of temperature change 207 
Extreme temperatures: limits to life 209
Physiological temperature adaptation of 219
References and Additional reading 225

8 Temperature regulation 228
The body temperature of birds and mammals 229
Temperature, heat, and heat transfer 234 
Heat balance 241 
Torpor and hibernation 264
Body temperature in "cold-blooded" animals 270
References and Additional reading 278

PART FOUR: WATER 283
9 Water and osmotic regulation 285
The aquatic environment 285
Aquatic invertebrates 289
Aquatic vertebrates 297
The terrestrial environment 308
Moist-skinned animals 309
Arthropods 313
Terrestrial vertebrates 321 
Marine air-breathing vertebrates 326
References and Additional reading 333

10 Excretion 338
Organs of excretion 340
Nitrogen excretion 362
References and Additional 372

PART FIVE: MOVEMENT, INFORMATION,
AND INTEGRATION 377
11 Muscle, movement, locomotion 379
Ameboid, ciliary, and flagellar locomotion 380
Movement and muscle 385
Skeletons 403
Locomotion: biomechanics 406
Buoyancy 417
References and Additional reading 432

12 Information and senses 437
Sensory information: possibilities and limitations 439
Transduction and transmission of information 460
References and Additional reading 474

13 Control and integration of 478
Control and control theory 479
Nervous control systems 484
Hormonal control systems 503 Control and integration in invertebrates 516
References and Additional reading S24 APPENDIXES 527
A Measurements and units 529
B Diffusion 533
C Logarithmic and exponential equations 536
D Thermodynamic expression of temperature
effects 537
E Solutions and osmosis 538
F The animal kingdom 542

INDEX 545
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