Biomolecular Sensors

Biomolecular Sensors
 
Author:
Electra Gizeli, Christopher R. Lowe
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Inc
ISBN No: 0-203-21219-3
Release at: 2002
Pages: 337
Edition:
First Edition
File Size: 3 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Biomolecular Sensors

The recent substantial advances in the understanding of the genomes of pro- and eukaryotic organisms which underpin growth, expression, differentiation, and productivity have far-reaching consequences in pure, strategic and applied science. The  “-omics” triad of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are beginning to enable scientists to establish outline mechanistic descriptions of the key bioinformatic drivers, the metabolic pathways, and the accumulation and/or assembly of components leading to all classes of end-product.


The development of new therapeutic drugs ranks among the most laborious and capital intensive of all mankind’s activities. Recent estimates of the number of individual genes in the human genome (~30,000) and the number of unique chemical structures theoretically attainable using existing chemistries (~108) suggest that up to 1012 assays would be required to map the structure-activity space for all potential therapeutic targets. However, this need for specific, well-validated molecular targets and the unwieldy scale and duration of drug development are now being addressed by these new “-omics” disciplines.

Content of Foodborne Biomolecular Sensors



PART I
Biological recognition 1
1 Principles of antigen-antibody recognition 3
M.H.V. VAN REGENMORTEL AND D. ALTSCHUH
Introduction 3
Structure of immunoglobulins 4
Structure of paratopes 5
Structure of epitopes 6
Antigen-antibody interactions 9
The specificity of immunological reagents 13
Structure-function relationships in immunochemistry 14
References 15
2 Protein-protein interactions 19
GIDEON SCHREIBER
Characterization of protein-protein interfaces 19
Double mutant cycle analysis of a protein-protein interface 23
Mutational induced structural rearrangement in protein
interfaces 25
Kinetic pathway of protein-protein association 25
The mechanism of association of a protein complex 26
Measuring protein-protein interactions inhomogeneous and
heterogeneous phase 27
Affinity versus activity 29
Summary 29
References 30

3 DNA interactions 33
BRIAN E. CATHERS AND MICHAEL J. WARING
Analog recognition 36
Middle of the spectrum 37
Digital recognition 39
References 42

PART II
Immobilization of biomolecules 47
4 Immobilization chemistry of biological recognition molecules 49
ANDREW G. MAYES
Introduction 49
Creation of the molecular recognition interface on the transducer 49
The transducer surface 50
Adsorption to the transducer surface 60
Entrapment methods 60
Covalent coupling chemistry 64
Techniques giving some control over the orientation of the immobilized
antibody 74
Spatial control of surface immobilization 78
Conclusion 83
References 83
5 Binding isotherms and kinetics of immobilized biological systems 87
CLAUS DUSCHL
Introduction 87
The determination of binding constants and of kinetic rate constants 89
Conclusions 118
References 118

PART III
Transducer technology 121
6 Optical transducers 123
MARTHA LILEY
Introduction 123
Optical transducers: general considerations 124
Direct detection 133
Fluorescence transducers 158
Conclusions and outlook 170
Acknowledgments 172
References 172
7 Acoustic transducers 176
ELECTRA GIZELI
Introduction 176
Elastic waves in solids 176
Acoustic wave devices 180
Acoustic wave sensors for studying biomolecular interactions 183
Comparison of acoustic sensors 200
Conclusions 202
Acknowledgments 202
References 202
8 Immunoassays using enzymatic amplification electrodes 207
FRIEDER W. SCHELLER, CHRISTIAN G. BAUER, ALEXANDER MAKOWER, ULLA
WOLLENBERGER, AXEL WARSINKE, AND FRANK F. BIER
Introduction 207
Coupling of immunoassays with enzymatic recycling electrodes 207
Conclusions 230
Acknowledgment 232
References 232

PART IV
Applications 239
9 Surface plasmon resonance: development and use of BIACORE instruments
for biomolecular interaction analysis 241
BENGT IVARSSON AND MAGNUS MALMQVIST
Introduction 241
Application demands 244
SPR-refractometer instrumental configurations 245
Sensor surface chemistry 256
Biomolecular interaction analysis-BIA 259
Marketing 263
References 265
10 sys: the resonant mirror biosensor 269
R.J. DAVIES AND P.R. EDWARDS
Introduction 269
Modus operandi – light and surfaces 269
Developments in kinetics 271
Recent applications 274
Conclusion 287
References 287

11 Commercial quartz crystal microbalances: theory and applications 291
C.K. O’SULLIVAN AND G.G. GUILBAULT
Introduction 291
Quartz crystal microbalance – theory 291
Commercial systems 295
Applications 295
Conclusion and future directions 299
Bibliography 300
12 The quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) 304
MICHAEL RODAHL, PATRIK DAHLQVIST, FREDRIK HÖÖK AND
BENGT KASEMO
Introduction 304
The QCM beyond the Sauerbrey regime 305
Application examples 307
Example 1: DNA 307
Example 2: Mussel adhesive protein 309
Concluding remarks 312
Appendix 313
References 314
Index 317

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