Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (PDF)

Magnetic Materials

Author:
K. H. J. Buschow & F. R. de Boer
Release at: 2003
Pages: 191
Edition:
First Edition
File Size: 6 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (PDF)

Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials by K. H. J. Buschow & F. R. de Boer is a great Magnetism book for physicist available for PDF download. The first accounts of magnetism date back to the ancient Greeks who also gave magnetism its name. It derives from Magnesia, a Greek town and province in Asia Minor, the etymological origin of the word “magnet” meaning “the stone from Magnesia.” This stone consisted of magnetite and it was known that a piece of iron would become magnetized when rubbed with it.

More serious efforts to use the power hidden in magnetic materials were made only much later. For instance, in the 18th century smaller pieces of magnetic materials were combined into a larger magnet body that was found to have quite a substantial lifting power. Progress in magnetism was made after Oersted discovered in 1820 that a magnetic field could be generated with an electric current. Sturgeon successfully used this knowledge to produce the first electromagnet in 1825. Although many famous scientists tackled the phenomenon of magnetism from the theoretical side (Gauss, Maxwell, and Faraday) it is mainly 20th century physicists who must take the credit for giving a proper description of magnetic materials and for laying the foundations of modem technology. Curie and Weiss succeeded in clarifying the phenomenon of spontaneous magnetization and its temperature dependence. The existence of magnetic domains was postulated by Weiss to explain how a material could be magnetized and nevertheless have a net magnetization of zero. The properties of the walls of such magnetic domains were studied in detail by Bloch, Landau, and NĂ©el.

Magnetic materials can be regarded now as being indispensable in modern technology. They are components of many electromechanical and electronic devices. For instance, an average home contains more than fifty of such devices of which ten are in a standard family car. Magnetic materials are also used as components in a wide range of industrial and medical equipment. Permanent magnet materials are essential in devices for storing energy in a static magnetic field. Major applications involve the conversion of mechanical to electrical energy and vice versa, or the exertion of a force on soft ferromagnetic objects. The applications of magnetic materials in information technology are continuously growing.




Content of Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (PDF)


Chapter 1. Introduction 1

Chapter 2. The Origin of Atomic Moments 3
2.1. Spin and Orbital States of Electrons 3
2.2. The Vector Model of Atoms 5

Chapter 3. Paramagnetism of Free Ions 11
3.1. The Brillouin Function 11
3.2. The Curie Law 13
References 17

Chapter 4. The Magnetically Ordered State 19
4.1. The Heisenberg Exchange Interaction and the Weiss Field 19
4.2. Ferromagnetism 22
4.3. Antiferromagnetism 26
4.4. Ferrimagnetism 34
References 41

Chapter 5. Crystal Fields 43
5.1. Introduction 43
5.2. Quantum-Mechanical Treatment 44
5.3. Experimental Determination of Crystal-Field Parameters 50
5.4. The Point-Charge Approximation and Its Limitations 52
5.5. Crystal-Field-Induced Anisotropy 54
5.6. A Simplified View of 4f-Electron Anisotropy 56
References 57

Chapter 6. Diamagnetism 59
Reference 61

Chapter 7. Itinerant-Electron Magnetism 63
7.1. Introduction 63
7.2. Susceptibility Enhancement 65
7.3. Strong and Weak Ferromagnetism 66
7.4. Intersublattice Coupling in Alloys of Rare Earths and 3d Metals 70
References 73

Chapter 8. Some Basic Concepts and Units 75
References 83

Chapter 9. Measurement Techniques 85
9.1. The Susceptibility Balance 85
9.2. The Faraday Method 86
9.3. The Vibrating-Sample Magnetometer 87
9.4. The SQUID Magnetometer 89
References 89

Chapter 10. Caloric Effects in Magnetic Materials 91
10.1. The Specific-Heat Anomaly 91
10.2. The Magnetocaloric Effect 93
References 95

Chapter 11. Magnetic Anisotropy 97
References 102

Chapter 12. Permanent Magnets 105
12.1. Introduction 105
12.2. Suitability Criteria 106
12.3. Domains and Domain Walls 109
12.4. Coercivity Mechanisms 112
12.5. Magnetic Anisotropy and Exchange Coupling in Permanent-Magnet Materials Based on Rare-Earth Compounds 115
12.6. Manufacturing Technologies of Rare-Earth-Based Magnets 119
12.7. Hard Ferrites 122
12.8. Alnico Magnets 124
References 128

Chapter 13. High-Density Recording Materials 131
13.1. Introduction 131
13.2. Magneto-Optical Recording Materials 133
13.3. Materials for High-Density Magnetic Recording 139
References 145

Chapter 14. Soft-Magnetic Materials 147
14.1. Introduction 147
14.2. Survey of Materials 148
14.3. The Random-Anisotropy Model 156
14.4. Dependence of Soft-Magnetic Properties on Grain Size 158
14.5. Head Materials and Their Applications 159
14.5.1 High-Density Magnetic-Induction Heads 159
14.5.2 Magnetoresistive Heads 161
References 163

Chapter 15. Invar Alloys 165
References 170

Chapter 16. Magnetostrictive Materials 171
References 175

Author Index 177

Subject Index 179
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