Semiconductor Nanostructures for Optoelectronic Applications

Semiconductor Nanostructures
 
Author:
Todd Steiner
Publisher: Artech House
ISBN No: 1-58053-751-0
Release at: 2004
Pages: 436
Edition:
First Edition
File Size: 8 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Content of Semiconductor Nanostructures for Optoelectronic Applications



CHAPTER 1
Introduction 1
1.1 Synopsis 1
1.2 Growth 1
1.3 Optoelectronic Devices Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures 2
1.4 Materials for Semiconductor Nanostructures 2
1.5 Summary 3

CHAPTER 2
Review of Crystal, Thin-Film, and Nanostructure Growth Technologies 5
2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Review of Thermodynamics 6
2.2.1 Chemical Reactions 7
2.2.2 Phase Diagrams 7
2.3 Bulk Crystal Growth Techniques 8
2.3.1 Czochralski Method 8
2.3.2 Bridgman Method 11
2.3.3 Float-Zone Method 13
2.3.4 Lely Growth Methods 14
2.4 Epitaxial Growth Techniques 16
2.4.1 Liquid Phase Epitaxy 16
2.4.2 Vapor Phase Epitaxy 17
2.4.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy 20
2.4.4 Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition 24
2.4.5 Atomic Layer Epitaxy 29
2.5 Thin-Film Deposition Techniques 29
2.5.1 Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition 29
2.5.2 Vacuum Evaporation 31
2.5.3 Sputtering 33
2.6 Growth of Nanostructures 34
2.6.1 Properties and Requirements of Quantum Dot Devices 35
2.6.2 Growth Techniques 36
References 41

CHAPTER 3
Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors 45
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 QD and QDIP Structure Growth and Characterization 49
3.2.1 GaAs Capped Large and Small InAs QDs 50
3.2.2 AlGaAs Capped Large InAs MQD QDIP Structures 57
3.2.3 InxGa1-xAs Capped Small and Large InAs MQD-Based QDIP
Structures 64
3.3 QDIP Device Characteristics 76
3.3.1 Device Structures 76
3.3.2 Unintentionally Doped Large (PIG) InAs/GaAs MQD-Based
Detectors 77
3.3.3 QDIPs with AlGaAs Blocking Layers 87
3.3.4 InAs/InGaAs/GaAs QDIPs 92
3.3.5 Dual-Color QDIPs 102
3.4 Prognosis 107
Acknowledgments 109
References 109

CHAPTER 4
Quantum Dot Lasers: Theoretical Overview 113
4.1 Introduction: Dimensionality and Laser Performance 113
4.2 Advantages of an Idealized QD Laser 115
4.3 Progress in Fabricating QD Lasers 115
4.4 State-of-the-Art Complications 116
4.4.1 Nonuniformity of QDs 117
4.4.2 Parasitic Recombination Outside QDs 126
4.4.3 Violation of Local Neutrality in QDs 129
4.4.4 Excited States 131
4.4.5 Spatial Discreteness of Active Elements: Hole Burning 132
4.4.6 Intrinsic Nonlinearity of the Light-Current Characteristic 134
4.4.7 Critical Sensitivity to Structure Parameters 139
4.4.8 Dependence of the Maximum Gain on the QD Shape 142
4.4.9 Internal Optical Loss 143
4.5 Novel Designs of QD Lasers with Improved Threshold and Power
Characteristics 148
4.5.1 Temperature-Insensitive Threshold 148
4.5.2 Enhanced Power Performance 150
4.6 Other Perspectives 151
References 153

CHAPTER 5
High-Speed Quantum Dot Lasers 159
5.1 Introduction 159
5.2 MBE Growth of Self-Organized QDs and Their Electronic
Properties 160
5.2.1 Self-Organized Growth of In(Ga)As QDs 160
5.2.2 Electronic Spectra of In(Ga)As/GaAs QDs 161
5.3 Separate Confinement Heterostructure QD Lasers and Their
Limitations 163
5.3.1 Carrier Relaxation and Phonon Bottleneck in
Self-Organized QDs 164
5.3.2 Hot Carrier Effects in SCH QD Lasers 167
5.4 Tunnel Injection of Carriers in QDs 168
5.4.1 Tunneling-Injection Laser Heterostructure Design and
MBE Growth 169
5.4.2 Measurement of Phonon-Assisted Tunneling Times 170
5.5 Characteristics of High-Speed Tunneling-Injection QD Lasers 172
5.5.1 Room Temperature DC Characteristics 172
5.5.2 Temperature-Dependent DC Characteristics 172
5.5.3 High-Speed Modulation Characteristics 174
5.6 Conclusion 183
Acknowledgments 183
References 183

CHAPTER 6
Zinc Oxide-Based Nanostructures 187
6.1 Introduction 187
6.1.1 General Properties of ZnO 187
6.1.2 ZnO One-Dimensional Nanostructures 189
6.2 Growth Techniques 191
6.2.1 Growth Mechanisms 191
6.2.2 Growth Techniques 194
6.2.3 Summary 210
6.3 Characterizations 211
6.3.1 Structural Characterizations 211
6.3.2 Optical Characterizations 215
6.4 Device Applications 219
6.4.1 Optical Devices 219
6.4.2 Electronic Devices 221
References 224

CHAPTER 7
Antimony-Based Materials for Electro-Optics 229
7.1 Introduction 229
7.1.1 Antimony 229
7.1.2 Sb-Based III-V Semiconductor Alloys 230
7.1.3 Bulk Single-Crystal Growth 232
7.1.4 Applications 232
7.2 III-Sb Binary Compounds: GaSb, AlSb, and InSb 235
7.2.1 GaSb 235
7.2.2 AlSb 239
7.2.3 InSb 242
7.3 InAsSb 250
7.3.1 Physical Properties 250
7.3.2 Growth of InAsSb 253
7.3.3 Characterizations 253
7.3.4 Device Measurement 256
7.4 InTlSb 259
7.4.1 MOCVD Growth of InTlSb 259
7.4.2 InTlSb Photodetectors 262
7.5 InBiSb 262
7.5.1 MOCVD Growth of InSbBi 262
7.5.2 InSbBi Photodetectors 265
7.6 InTlAsSb 266
7.7 InAsSb/InAsSbP for IR Lasers 267
7.7.1 Growth and Characterization of InAsSb and InAsSbP 268
7.7.2 Strained-Layer Superlattices 269
7.7.3 Device Results 271
7.8 GaSb/InAs Type II Superlattice for IR Photodetectors 273
7.8.1 Introduction 273
7.8.2 Experimental Results for Type II Photodetectors 275
Acknowledgments 284
References 285

CHAPTER 8
Growth, Structures, and Optical Properties of III-Nitride Quantum Dots 289
8.1 Introduction 289
8.2 Growth of III-Nitride QDs 291
8.2.1 MBE Growth of III-Nitride QDs 292
8.2.2 Other Techniques 314
8.3 Optical Properties of III-Nitride QDs 317
8.3.1 Effects of Quantum Confinement, Strain, and Polarization 318
8.3.2 GaN QDs 323
8.3.3 InGaN QDs 337
8.4 Summary 343
References 344

CHAPTER 9
Self-Assembled Germanium Nano-Islands on Silicon and
Potential Applications 349
9.1 Introduction 349
9.2 Heteroepitaxy Mechanisms 349
9.3 Uniform Ge Islands 350
9.4 Registration and Regimentation of Ge Islands 355
9.5 Novel Device Applications 362
9.5.1 Optoelectronics 362
9.5.2 Thermoelectricity 365
9.5.3 Electronics Applications 366
9.5.4 Quantum Information Applications 366
9.6 Conclusion 367
References 367

CHAPTER 10
Carbon Nanotube Engineering and Physics 371
10.1 Introduction 371
10.2 Controlled Fabrication of Uniform Nanotubes in a Highly
Ordered Array 373
10.3 Interfacing with Biomolecules and Cells 379
10.4 Intrinsic Quantum Electromechanical Couplings 382
10.5 Extrinsic Coupling to Radiation Fields 391
10.6 Heterojunction Nanotubes 392
10.7 Prospects for Future Advances 396
Acknowledgments 398
References 398

Acronyms 403

About the Editor 407

Index 409

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