Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics

Electricity and Electronics
 
Author:
Stan Gibilisco
Publisher: McGraw-Hill
Release at: 2017
Pages: 747
Edition:
Third Edition
File Size: 5 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Content of Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics



Part 1 Direct current

1 Basic physical concepts 3
Atoms 3
Protons, neutrons, and atomic number 4
Isotopes and atomic weights 4
Electrons 5
Ions 5
Compounds 9
Molecules 10
Conductors 11
Insulators 11
Resistors 13
Semiconductors 14
Current 15
Static electricity 15
Electromotive force 16
Nonelectrical energy 18
Quiz 19
2 Electrical units 23
The volt 23
Current flow 24
The ampere 26
Resistance and the ohm 26
Conductance and the siemens 28
Power and the watt 29
Energy and the watt-hour 31
Other energy units 33
ac Waves and the hertz 34
Rectification and fluctuating direct current 35
Safety considerations in electrical work 37
Magnetism 38
Magnetic units 39
Quiz 40
3 Measuring devices 44
Electromagnetic deflection 44
Electrostatic deflection 46
Thermal heating 47
Ammeters 48
Voltmeters 49
Ohmmeters 51
Multimeters 53
FET and vacuum-tube voltmeters 54
Wattmeters 54
Watt-hour meters 55
Digital readout meters 56
Frequency counters 57
Other specialized meter types 57
Quiz 60
4 Basic dc circuits 65
Schematic symbols 65
Schematic diagrams 67
Wiring diagrams 68
Voltage/current/resistance circuit 68
Ohm’s Law 69
Current calculations 69
Voltage calculations 71
Resistance calculations 71
Power calculations 72
Resistances in series 73
Resistances in parallel 74
Division of power 75
Resistances in series-parallel 75
Resistive loads in general 77
Quiz 77
5 Direct-current circuit analysis 82
Current through series resistances 82
Voltages across series resistances 83
The voltage across parallel resistances 85
Currents through parallel resistances 86
Power distribution in series circuits 88
Power distribution in parallel circuits 88
Kirchhoff’s first law 89
Kirchhoff’s second law 91
Voltage divider networks 92
Quiz 95
6 Resistors 99
Purpose of the resistor 99
The carbon-composition resistor 102
The wire-wound resistor 103
Film type resistors 104
Integrated-circuit resistors 104
The potentiometer 105
The decibel 107
The rheostat 109
Resistor values 110
Tolerance 110
Power rating 110
Temperature compensation 111
The color code 112
Quiz 114
7 Cells and batteries 118
Kinetic and potential energy 118
Electrochemical energy 118
Primary and secondary cells 119
The Weston standard cell 120
Storage capacity 120
Common dime-store cells and batteries 122
Miniature cells and batteries 124
Lead-acid cells and batteries 125
Nickel-cadmium cells and batteries 125
Photovoltaic cells and batteries 127
How large a battery? 128
Quiz 130
8 Magnetism 134
The geomagnetic field 134
Magnetic force 135
Electric charge in motion 136
Flux lines 136
Magnetic polarity 137
Dipoles and monopoles 139
Magnetic field strength 139
Permeability 142
Retentivity 142
Permanent magnets 143
The solenoid 144
The dc motor 145
Magnetic data storage 146
Quiz 149
Test: Part 1 153

Part 2 Alternating current

9 Alternating current basics 165
Definition of alternating current 165
Period and frequency 165
The sine wave 167
The square wave 167
Sawtooth waves 167
Complex and irregular waveforms 169
Frequency spectrum 170
Little bits of a cycle 172
Phase difference 173
Amplitude of alternating current 173
Superimposed direct current 175
The ac generator 176
Why ac? 178
Quiz 178
10 Inductance 183
The property of inductance 183
Practical inductors 184
The unit of inductance 185
Inductors in series 185
Inductors in parallel 186
Interaction among inductors 187
Effects of mutual inductance 188
Air-core coils 189
Powdered-iron and ferrite cores 190
Permeability tuning 190
Toroids 190
Pot cores 192
Filter chokes 192
Inductors at audio frequency 193
Inductors at radio frequency 193
Transmission-line inductors 193
Unwanted inductances 195
Quiz 195
11 Capacitance 199
The property of capacitance 199
Practical capacitors 201
The unit of capacitance 201
Capacitors in series 202
Capacitors in parallel 203
Dielectric materials 204
Paper capacitors 204
Mica capacitors 205
Ceramic capacitors 205
Plastic-film capacitors 206
Electrolytic capcitors 206
Tantalum capacitors 206
Semiconductor capacitors 207
Variable capacitors 207
Tolerance 209
Temperature coefficient 210
Interelectrode capacitance 210
Quiz 211
12 Phase 215
Instantaneous voltage and current 215
Rate of change 216
Sine waves as circular motion 217
Degrees of phase 218
Radians of phase 221
Phase coincidence 221
Phase opposition 222
Leading phase 222
Lagging phase 224
Vector diagrams of phase relationships 225
Quiz 226
13 Inductive reactance 231
Coils and direct current 231
Coils and alternating current 232
Reactance and frequency 233
Points in the RL plane 234
Vectors in the RL plane 235
Current lags voltage 237
Inductance and resistance 238
How much lag? 240
Quiz 243
14 Capacitive reactance 247
Capacitors and direct current 247
Capacitors and alternating current 248
Reactance and frequency 249
Points in the RC plane 251
Vectors in the RC plane 253
Current leads voltage 254
How much lead? 256
Quiz 259
15 Impedance and admittance 264
Imaginary numbers 264
Complex numbers 265
The complex number plane 266
The RX plane 269
Vector representation of impedance 270
Absolute-value impedance 272
Characteristic impedance 272
Conductance 275
Susceptance 275
Admittance 276
The GB plane 277
Vector representation of admittance 279
Why all these different expressions? 279
Quiz 280
16 RLC circuit analysis 284
Complex impedances in series 284
Series RLC circuits 288
Complex admittances in parallel 289
Parallel GLC circuits 292
Converting from admittance to impedance 294
Putting it all together 294
Reducing complicated RLC circuits 295
Ohm’s law for ac circuits 298
Quiz 301
17 Power and resonance in ac circuits 305
What is power? 305
True power doesn’t travel 307
Reactance does not consume power 308
True power, VA power and reactive power 309
Power factor 310
Calculation of power factor 310
How much of the power is true? 313
Power transmission 315
Series resonance 318
Parallel resonance 319
Calculating resonant frequency 319
Resonant devices 321
Quiz 323
18 Transformers and impedance matching 327
Principle of the transformer 327
Turns ratio 328
Transformer cores 329
Transformer geometry 330
The autotransformer 333
Power transformers 334
Audio-frequency transformers 336
Isolation transformers 336
Impedance-transfer ratio 338
Radio-frequency transformers 339
What about reactance? 341
Quiz 342
Test: Part 2 346

Part 3 Basic electronics

19 Introduction to semiconductors 359
The semiconductor revolution 359
Semiconductor materials 360
Doping 362
Majority and minority charge carriers 362
Electron flow 362
Hole flow 363
Behavior of a P-N junction 363
How the junction works 364
Junction capacitance 366
Avalanche effect 366
Quiz 367
20 Some uses of diodes 370
Rectification 370
Detection 371
Frequency multiplication 372
Mixing 373
Switching 374
Voltage regulation 374
Amplitude limiting 374
Frequency control 376
Oscillation and amplification 377
Energy emission 377
Photosensitive diodes 378
Quiz 380
21 Power supplies 383
Parts of a power supply 383
The power transformer 384
The diode 385
The half-wave rectifier 386
The full-wave, center-tap rectifier 387
The bridge rectifier 387
The voltage doubler 389
The filter 390
Voltage regulation 392
Surge current 393
Transient suppression 394
Fuses and breakers 394
Personal safety 395
Quiz 396
22 The bipolar transistor 400
NPN versus PNP 400
NPN biasing 402
PNP biasing 404
Biasing for current amplification 404
Static current amplification 405
Dynamic current amplification 406
Overdrive 406
Gain versus frequency 407
Common-emitter circuit 408
Common-base circuit 409
Common-collector circuit 410
Quiz 411
23 The field-effect transistor 416
Principle of the JFET 416
N-channel versus P-channel 417
Depletion and pinchoff 418
JFET biasing 419
Voltage amplification 420
Drain current versus drain voltage 421
Transconductance 422
The MOSFET 422
Depletion mode versus enhancement mode 425
Common-source circuit 425
Common-gate circuit 426
Common-drain circuit 427
A note about notation 429
Quiz 429
24 Amplifiers 433
The decibel 433
Basic bipolar amplifier circuit 437
Basic FET amplifier circuit 438
The class-A amplifier 439
The class-AB amplifier 440
The class-B amplifier 441
The class-C amplifier 442
PA efficiency 443
Drive and overdrive 445
Audio amplification 446
Coupling methods 447
Radio-frequency amplification 450
Quiz 453
25 Oscillators 457
Uses of oscillators 457
Positive feedback 458
Concept of the oscillator 458
The Armstrong oscillator 459
The Hartley circuit 459
The Colpitts circuit 461
The Clapp circuit 461
Stability 463
Crystal-controlled oscillators 464
The voltage-controlled oscillator 465
The PLL frequency synthesizer 466
Diode oscillators 467
Audio waveforms 467
Audio oscillators 468
IC oscillators 469
Quiz 469
26 Data transmission 474
The carrier wave 474
The Morse code 475
Frequency-shift keying 475
Amplitude modulation for voice 478
Single sideband 480
Frequency and phase modulation 482
Pulse modulation 485
Analog-to-digital conversion 487
Image transmission 487
The electromagnetic field 490
Transmission media 493
Quiz 495
27 Data reception 499
Radio wave propagation 499
Receiver specifications 502
Definition of detection 504
Detection of AM signals 504
Detection of CW signals 505
Detection of FSK signals 506
Detection of SSB signals 506
Detection of FM signals 506
Detection of PM signals 508
Digital-to-analog conversion 509
Digital signal processing 510
The principle of signal mixing 511
The product detector 512
The superheterodyne 515
A modulated-light receiver 517
Quiz 517
28 Integrated circuits and data storage media 521
Boxes and cans 521
Advantages of IC technology 522
Limitations of IC technology 523
Linear versus digital 524
Types of linear ICs 524
Bipolar digital ICs 527
MOS digital ICs 527
Component density 529
IC memory 530
Magnetic media 532
Compact disks 535
Quiz 535
29 Electron tubes 539
Vacuum versus gas-filled 539
The diode tube 540
The triode 541
Extra grids 542
Some tubes are obsolete 544
Radio-frquency power amplifiers 544
Cathode-ray tubes 546
Video camera tubes 547
Traveling-wave tubes 549
Quiz 551
30 Basic digital principles 555
Numbering systems 555
Logic signals 557
Basic logic operations 559
Symbols for logic gates 561
Complex logic operators 561
Working with truth tables 562
Boolean algebra 564
The flip-flop 564
The counter 566
The register 567
The digital revolution 568
Quiz 568
Test: Part 3 572

Part 4 Advanced electronics and related technology

31 Acoustics, audio, and high fidelity 583
Acoustics 583
Loudness and phase 585
Technical considerations 587
Basic components 589
Other components 591
Specialized systems 596
Recorded media 597
Electromagnetic interference 601
Quiz 602
32 Wireless and personal communications systems 606
Cellular communications 606
Satellite systems 608
Acoustic transducers 612
Radio-frequency transducers 613
Infrared transducers 614
Wireless local area networks 615
Wireless security systems 616
Hobby radio 617
Noise 619
Quiz 620
33 Computers and the Internet 624
The microprocessor and CPU 624
Bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes 626
The hard drive 626
Other forms of mass storage 628
Random-access memory 629
The display 631
The printer 633
The modem 635
The Internet 636
Quiz 640
34 Robotics and artificial intelligence 644
Asimov’s three laws 644
Robot generations 645
Independent or dependent? 646
Robot arms 648
Robotic hearing and vision 652
Robotic navigation 657
Telepresence 661
The mind of the machine 663
Quiz 665
Test: Part 4 669
Final exam 679
Appendices
A Answers to quiz, test, and exam questions 697
B Schematic symbols 707
Suggested additional reference 713
Index 715

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