Thermophilic Microbes in Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology

Thermophilic Microbes
Tulasi Satyanarayana, Jennifer Littlechild & Yutaka Kawarabayasi
Release at: 2013
Pages: 951
Second edition
File Size: 12 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English

Description of Thermophilic Microbes in Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology

It is now very well known that microbial life can thrive in the upper as well as lower temperature limits that are known to be compatible with life. Temperature provides a series of challenges, from structural devastation due to ice crystal formation at one extreme to the denaturation of biomolecules and cell components at the other. A wide variety of microorganisms have, however, been discovered that can overcome these challenges. The thermophiles, the so-called heat-loving organisms, tolerate high temperatures and also usually require elevated temperatures for their growth and survival.

Thermophilic microbes or organisms able to grow around 60°C have been known for over 90 years, while hyperthermophilic organisms able to grow over 80°C have been recognized only three decades ago. The currently known upper temperature limit for life is 121°C. Within the past few decades, a great diversity of thermophilic microbes have been isolated that exist in both natural and arti fi cial hot environments. 

The microbial diversity of these habitats as analyzed by molecular biology techniques has indicated that the diversity of thermophilic organisms extends much further than those species already isolated. There are a large number of metagenomic projects being undertaken to look at complete microbial and viral communities in these environments.

Content of Thermophilic Microbes in Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology

Part I Thermophiles in the Environment

1 Diversity of Hot Environments and Thermophilic Microbes  3
Deepika Mehta and Tulasi Satyanarayana

2 Exploring the Ecology of Thermophiles from Australia’s Great Artesian Basin During the Genomic Era  61
Christopher D. Ogg , Mark D. Spanevello,
and Bharat K. C. Patel

3 Hot Environments from Antarctica: Source of Thermophiles and Hyperthermophiles, with Potential Biotechnological Applications  99
Patricio A. Flores , Maximiliano J. Amenábar,
and Jenny M. Blamey

4 Bacterial and Biochemical Properties of Newly Invented Aerobic, High-Temperature Compost  119
Takahiro Yoshii, Toshiyuki Moriya, and Tairo Oshima

5 Role of Thermophilic Micro fl ora in Composting . 137
Seema Rawat and Bhavdish Narain Johri

6 Metal Bioremediation by Thermophilic Microorganisms  171
Pinaki Sar, Su fi a K. Kazy, Dhiraj Paul, and Angana Sarkar

7 CO-Oxidizing Anaerobic Thermophilic Prokaryotes .. 203
T. Sokolova and A. Lebedinsky

8 Biomineralization in Geothermal Environments . 233
Katsumi Doi and Yasuhiro Fujino

9 Phylogeny and Biological Features of Thermophiles  249
Takashi Itoh and Takao Iino

10 Biology, Biodiversity and Application of Thermophilic Viruses . 271
Kristine Uldahl and Xu Peng

Part II Genomics, Metagenomics and Biotechnology

11 Genomics of Thermophilic Bacteria and Archaea  307 
Takaaki Sato and Haruyuki Atomi

12 Comparative Genomics of Thermophilic Bacteria and Archaea . 331
Satoshi Akanuma, Shin-ichi Yokobori,
and Akihiko Yamagishi

13 Host-Vector Systems in Thermophiles .. 351
Takahiro Inoue and Yoshihiko Sako

14 Molecular Chaperones in Thermophilic Eubacteria and Archaea . 375
Muhamad Sahlan and Masafumi Yohda

15 Heterologous Production of Thermostable Proteins and Enzymes . 395
Haruhiko Sakuraba and Toshihisa Ohshima

16 Discovery of Thermostable Enzymes from Hot Environmental Samples by Metagenomic Approaches  413
Norio Kurosawa

17 DNA Polymerases and DNA Ligases . 429
Sonoko Ishino and Yoshizumi Ishino

18 Molecular Diversity and Biotechnological Relevance of Thermophilic Actinobacteria . 459
Satya P. Singh, Rushit J. Shukla , and Bhavtosh A. Kikani

19 Mechanisms of Thermal Stability Adopted by Thermophilic Proteins and Their Use in White Biotechnology .. 481
Jennifer Littlechild, Halina Novak , Paul James ,
and Christopher Sayer

20 Starch-Hydrolyzing Enzymes from Thermophiles .. 509
Skander Elleuche and Garabed Antranikian

21 Thermostable Archaeal and Bacterial Pullulanases and Amylopullulanases  535
M. Nisha and Tulasi Satyanarayana

22 Sugar Metabolic Enzymes .. 589
Kazuaki Yoshimune and Yutaka Kawarabayasi

23 Restriction Enzymes from Thermophiles . 611
Prince Sharma, Ravinder Kumar, and Neena Capalash

24 Microbial Chitinases : Natural Sources, Mutagenesis, and Directed Evolution to Obtain Thermophilic Counterparts  649
Pullabhotla Venkata Subba Rama Narsimha Sarma ,
Jogi Madhu Prakash, Subha Narayan Das, Manjeet Kaur,
Pallinti Purushotham , and Appa Rao Podile

25 Phytases and Phosphatases of Thermophilic Microbes: Production, Characteristics and Multifarious Biotechnological Applications  671
Bijender Singh and Tulasi Satyanarayana

26 Pectinases of Thermophilic Microbes  689
Saurabh Sudha Dhiman, Ritu Mahajan, and Jitender Sharma

27 Developments in Thermostable Gellan Lyase .. 711
Margarita Kambourova and Anna Derekova

28 The Lignocellulolytic System of Thermophilic Fungi and Actinomycetes: Structure, Regulation, and Biotechnological Applications  731
Marcio José Poças-Fonseca , Robson Willian de Melo Matos,
and Thiago Machado Mello-de-Sousa

29 Cellulases of Thermophilic Microbes  771
Linga Venkateswar Rao, Anuj K. Chandel , G. Chandrasekhar,
A. Vimala Rodhe , and J. Sridevi

30 Xylanases from Thermophilic Fungi: Classi fi cation, Structure, and Case Study of Melanocarpus albomyces .. 795
Saroj Mishra, Vikram Sahai , Virendra Swaroop Bisaria ,
Ranjita Biswas, Gupteshwar Gupta, and Swati Nakra

31 Thermostable Bacterial Xylanases  813
Vikash Kumar, Digvijay Verma , A. Archana ,
and Tulasi Satyanarayana

32 Thermostable Proteases. 859
Rajeshwari Sinha and Sunil K. Khare

33 Microbial Keratinases: Diversity and Applications . 881
Rani Gupta, Ekta Tiwary, Richa Sharma, Rinky Rajput,
and Neha Nair

34 Biocatalysis Through Thermostable Lipases: Adding Flavor to Chemistry. 905
Rohit Sharma, Vishal Thakur, Monika Sharma,
and Nils-Kåre Birkeland

Index . 929

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