Food Microbiology an Introduction

Food Microbiology
 
Author:
Thomas J. Montville, Karl R. Matthews & Kalmia E. Kniel
Publisher: ASM Press
ISBN No: 978-1-4665-7950-7
Release at: 2012
Pages: 569
Edition:
Third Edition
File Size: 34 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Content of Food Microbiology an Introduction



SECTION I

Basics of Food Microbiology

Chapter: 1 The Trajectory of Food Microbiology

Introduction 3

Who’s on First? 3

Food Microbiology, Past and Present 4

To the Future and Beyond 8

Summary 10

Suggested reading 10

Questions for critical thought 11

Chapter: 2 Microbial Growth, Survival, and Death in Foods

Introduction 12

Food Ecosystems, Homeostasis, and Hurdle Technology 14

Foods as ecosystems 14

Classical Microbiology and Its Limitations 15

Limitations of Detection and enumeration Methods 15

Plate Counts 15

selective, or Differential, Media 15

Most-Probable-number Methods 17

enrichment techniques 18

Physiological States of Bacteria 19

Introduction 19

Injury 19

Viable but nonculturable 20

Quorum sensing and signal transduction 22

Biofilms 24

Factors That Influence Microbial Growth 25

Intrinsic Factors 25

extrinsic Factors 31

Homeostasis and Hurdle technology 34

Growth Kinetics 37

Microbial Physiology and Metabolism 39

Carbon Flow and substrate-level Phosphorylation 40

the TCA Cycle Links Glycolysis to Aerobic Respiration 42

Conclusion 42

Summary 43

Suggested reading 44

Questions for critical thought 44

Chapter: 3 Spores and Their Significance

Introduction 46

Spores in the Food Industry 46

Low-Acid Canned Foods 47

Bacteriology of spore formers of Public Health significance 49

Heat Resistance of C. botulinum spores 51

spoilage of Acid and Low-Acid Canned and Vacuum-Packaged Foods by sporeformers 52

Spore Biology 54

structure 54

Macromolecules 55

small Molecules 55

Dormancy 55

Resistance 55

Freezing and Desiccation Resistance 57

Pressure Resistance 58

g-Radiation Resistance 58

UV Radiation Resistance 58

Chemical Resistance 58

Heat Resistance 58

The Cycle of Sporulation and Germination 60

sporulation 60

Activation 61

Germination 61

outgrowth 62

Summary 62

Suggested reading 63

Questions for critical thought 63

Chapter: 4 Detection and Enumeration of Microbes in Food

Introduction 64

Sample Collection and Processing 66

Analysis 68

Metabolism-Based Methods 70

surface testing 70

Summary 72

Suggested reading 73

Questions for critical thought 73

Chapter: 5 Rapid and Automated Microbial Methods

Introduction 74

Sample Processing 75

Requirements and Validation of

Rapid Methods 75

Rapid Methods Based on Traditional

Methods 77

Immunologically Based Methods 81

Molecular Methods 82

A Potpourri of Rapid Methods 84

Summary 85

Suggested reading 85

Questions for critical thought 86

Chapter: 6 Indicator Microorganisms and Microbiological Criteria

Introduction 87

the Purpose of Microbiological Criteria 87

the need to establish Microbiological Criteria 88

Definitions 88

Who establishes Microbiological Criteria? 89

Sampling Plans 89

types of sampling Plans 90

Establishing Limits 91

Indicators of Microbiological Quality 92

Indicator Microorganisms 92

Metabolic Products 94

Indicators of Foodborne Pathogens and Toxins 95

Indicator organisms 98

Fecal Coliforms and E. coli 99

Metabolic Products 99

Application and Specific Proposals for Microbiological Criteria for Food and Food Ingredients 99

Current Status 100

Summary 103

Suggested reading 103

Questions for critical thought 103

SECTION II

Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

Chapter: 7 Regulatory Issues

Introduction 107

U.S. Agencies Involved in Food Regulation 108

the USDA 108

the FDA 111

the CDC 114

Surveillance 114

When an Outbreak Occurs 117

Agroterrorism 119

What’s Next? 120

Global Perspective 120

“It Takes a Village” and Maybe More 121

Summary 121

Suggested reading 122

Questions for critical thought 122

Chapter: 8 Bacillus cereus

Outbreak 124

Introduction 124

Characteristics of the Organism 125

Environmental Sources 126

Foodborne Outbreaks 126

Characteristics of Disease 126

Dose 127

Virulence Factors and Mechanisms of

Pathogenicity 127

the emetic toxin 128

enterotoxins 128

B. cereus as a Medical Pathogen 128

the spore 130

Summary 131

Suggested reading 131

Questions for critical thought 131

Chapter: 9 Campylobacter Species

Outbreak 132

Introduction 132

Characteristics of the Organism 133

Environmental Susceptibility 133

Reservoirs and Foodborne Outbreaks 133

Characteristics of Disease 136

C. jejuni and C. coli 136

other Campylobacter species 137

Epidemiological Subtyping Systems Useful for Investigating Foodborne Illnesses 137

Infective Dose and Susceptible Populations 137

Virulence Factors and Mechanisms of Pathogenicity 138

Cell Association and Invasion 138

Flagella and Motility 138

toxins 139

other Factors 139

Autoimmune Diseases 139

Immunity 139

Summary 140

Suggested reading 140

Questions for critical thought 140

Chapter: 10 Clostridium botulinum

Introduction 142

Four Faces of Botulism 142

Characteristics of the Disease 145

Toxic Doses 148

Characteristics of C. botulinum 148

Classification 148

tolerance to Preservation Methods 150

Sources of C. botulinum 153

Occurrence of C. botulinum in the environment 153

Occurrence of C. botulinum in Foods 154

Virulence Factors and Mechanisms of

Pathogenicity 155

structure of the neurotoxins 155

Genetic Regulation of the neurotoxins 155

Mode of Action of the neurotoxins 157

Summary 157

Suggested reading 157

Questions for critical thought 157

Chapter: 11 Clostridium perfringens

The Foodborne Illness 160

A spore’s eye View of Clostridium perfringens toxicoinfections 160

Cruel and Unusual Punishment 160

Incidence 161

Vehicles for C. perfringens Foodborne Illness 161

Factors Contributing to C. perfringens type A

Foodborne Illness 162

Preventing C. perfringens type A

Foodborne Illness 162

Identification of C. perfringens type A Foodborne illness outbreaks 162

Characteristics of C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Illness 163

Infectious Dose for C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Illness 163

The Organism 163

overview 163

Classification: toxin typing of C. perfringens 164

Control of C. perfringens 165

Reservoirs for C. perfringens Type A 166

Virulence Factors Contributing to C. perfringens Type A Foodborne Illness 166

Heat Resistance 166

C. perfringens enterotoxin 166

Summary 168

Suggested reading 169

Questions for critical thought 169

Chapter: 12 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

Outbreak 170

Introduction 171

Categories of E. coli 171

Characteristics of E. coli O157: H7 and Non-O157 EHEC 175 Acid tolerance 175

Antibiotic Resistance 176

Inactivation by Heat and Irradiation 176

Reservoirs of E. coli O157: H7 177

Detection of E. coli o157: H7 and other EHEC strains on Farms 177

Factors Associated with Bovine Carriage of E. coli o157: H7 177

Cattle Model for Infection by E. coli o157: H7 177

Domestic Animals and Wildlife 178

Humans 178

Disease Outbreaks 178

Geographic Distribution 178

seasonality of E. coli o157: H7 Infection 179

Age of Patients 179

transmission of E. coli o157: H7 179

examples of Foodborne and Waterborne outbreaks 179

Characteristics of Disease 181

Infectious Dose 182

Mechanisms of Pathogenicity 183

Attaching and effacing 183

the Locus of enterocyte effacement 183

the 60-MDa Plasmid (po157) 184

STXS 185

Conclusion 186

Summary 187

Suggested reading 187

Questions for critical thought 187

Listeria monocytogenes 189

Outbreak 189

Introduction 190

Characteristics of the Organism 191

Classification 191

susceptibility to Physical and

Chemical Agents 192

Listeriosis and Specific Foods 193

Ready-to-eat Foods 193

Milk Products 193

Cheeses 193

Meat and Poultry Products 194

Sea foods 194

other Foods 195

environmental sources of L. monocytogenes 195

Food-Processing Plants 195

Prevalence and the Regulatory status of L. monocytogenes 196

Human Carriers 199

Foodborne Outbreaks 199

Characteristics of Disease 200

Infectious Dose 201

Virulence Factors and Mechanisms of Pathogenicity 201

Pathogenicity of L. monocytogenes 201

specific Genes Mediate Pathogenicity 202

Summary 203

Suggested reading 203

Questions for critical thought 204

More questions than answers 204

Chapter: 14 Salmonella Species

Outbreak 205

Introduction 205

Characteristics of the Organism 208

Biochemical Identification 208

taxonomy and nomenclature 209

serological Identification 209

Physiology 210

Reservoirs 213

Characteristics of Disease 214

symptoms and treatment 214

Preventative Measures 215

Antibiotic Resistance 216

Infectious Dose 216

Pathogenicity and Virulence Factors 217

specific and nonspecific Human Responses 217

Attachment and Invasion 218

Growth and survival within Host Cells 218

Virulence Plasmids 218

other Virulence Factors 219

Summary 220

Suggested reading 220

Questions for critical thought 220

Chapter: 15 Shigella Species

Outbreak 222

Introduction 223

Classification and Biochemical Characteristics 224

Shigella in Foods 226

survival and Growth in Foods 226

Characteristics of Disease 227

Foodborne Outbreaks 227

Virulence Factors 228

Genetic Regulation 228

Conclusions 229

Summary 229

Suggested reading 229

Questions for critical thought 230

Chapter: 16 Staphylococcus aureus

Outbreak 231

Characteristics of the Organism 232

Historical Aspects and General Considerations 232

sources of staphylococcal Food Contamination 232

Resistance to Adverse environmental Conditions 233

Foodborne Outbreaks 234

Incidence of staphylococcal Food Poisoning 234

A typical Large staphylococcal Food Poisoning outbreak 234

Characteristics of Disease 235

Toxic Dose 236

toxin Dose Required 236

Microbiology, Toxins, and Pathogenicity 236

nomenclature, Characteristics, and Distribution of enterotoxin-Producing staphylococci 236

Introduction to and nomenclature of the staphylococcal enterotoxins 238

staphylococcal Regulation of staphylococcal enterotoxin expression 240

Summary 243

Suggested reading 244

Questions for critical thought 244

Chapter: 17 Vibrio Species

Outbreak 245

Introduction 246

Characteristics of the Organism 246

epidemiology 246

Characteristics of Disease 246

Susceptibility to Physical and Chemical Treatments 247

V. cholerae 247

V. mimicus 249

V. parahaemolyticus 250

V. vulnificus 251

V. fluvialis , V. furnissii , V. hollisae , and V. alginolyticus 253

Summary 253

Suggested reading 253

Questions for critical thought 254

Chapter: 18 Yersinia enterocolitica

Outbreak 255

Introduction 256

Characteristics of the organism 256

Classification 256

susceptibility and tolerance 257

Characteristics of Infection 258

Reservoirs 259

Foodborne Outbreaks 260

Mechanisms of Pathogenicity 261

Pathological Changes 261

Virulence Determinants 262

Chromosomal Determinants of Virulence 262

other Virulence Determinants 262

Pathogenesis of Yersinia -Induced Autoimmunity 263

Summary 263

Suggested reading 264

Questions for critical thought 264

SECTION III 

Other Microbes Important in Food

Chapter: 19 Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Fermentation Products

Introduction 269

The Biochemical Foundation of Food Fermentation 269

Catabolic Pathways 271

Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria 272

Dairy Fermentations 272

starter Cultures 275

Production of Aroma Compounds 276

Vegetable Fermentations 276

Ingredients and Additives Used during Fermentations 277

sauerkraut Fermentation 278

Pickle Fermentation 278

Meat Fermentations 279

Summary 280

Suggested reading 280

Questions for critical thought 281

Other Microbes Important in Food 267

Chapter: 20 Yeast-Based and Other Fermentations

Introduction 282

Fermentations That Use Yeast 283 Bread 283

Beer 285

Wine 287

Vinegar Fermentation 290

Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations 291

Cocoa 291

Coffee 293

Fermented Foods of Non-Western Societies 293

Summary 296

Suggested reading 296

Questions for critical thought 297

Chapter: 21 Spoilage Organisms

Introduction 298

Meat, Poultry, and Seafood Products 299

origin of the Microflora in Meat 299

origin of the Microflora in Poultry 299

origins of Microfloras in Finfish 300

origins of Microfloras in shellfish 300

Bacterial Attachment to Food surfaces 300

Microbial Progression during storage 301

Muscle tissue as a Growth Medium 302

Factors Influencing spoilage 304

Control of spoilage of Muscle Foods 306

Milk and Dairy Products 309

Milk and Dairy Products as Growth Media 309

Psychrotrophic spoilage 311

spoilage by Fermentative nonsporeformers 314

spore-Forming Bacteria 315

Yeasts and Molds 317

Spoilage of Produce and Grains 317

types of spoilage 318

Mechanisms of spoilage 319

Influence of Physiological state 320

Microbiological spoilage of Vegetables 320

Microbiological spoilage of Fruits 322

Microbiological spoilage of Grains and Grain Products 323

Summary 325

Suggested reading 325

Questions for critical thought 325

Chapter: 22 Molds

Introduction 327

Isolation, Enumeration, and Identification 327

Aspergillus Species 332

A. flavus and A. parasiticus 335

other toxigenic Aspergilli 339

Penicillium Species 341

significant Penicillium Mycotoxins 341

Fusaria and Toxigenic Molds Other than Aspergilli and Penicillia 344

toxigenic Fusarium species 344

other toxic Molds 347

Summary 347

Suggested reading 347

Questions for critical thought 348

Chapter: 23 Parasites

Outbreak 349

Introduction 350

Protozoa 351

Cryptosporidium spp. 353

Cyclospora cayetanensis 357

Toxoplasma gondii 360

Giardia intestinalis 362

other Protozoa of Interest 365

Helminths 367

Roundworms (nematodes) 367

tapeworms (Cestodes) 371

Flukes (trematodes) 374

Detection 376

Preventative Measures 376

Summary 377

Suggested reading 377

Questions for critical thought 378

SECTION IV

Control of Microorganisms in Food

Chapter: 25 Chemical Antimicrobials

Introduction 403

Factors That Affect Antimicrobial Activity 404

Organic Acids 405

Parabenzoic Acids 406

Nitrites 407

Phosphates 407

Sodium Chloride 408

Water Activity 408

Disinfectants 410

sulfites 411

Chlorine 413

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 413

Peroxides 413

ozone 414

Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials 414

Lysozyme 414

Lactoferrin and other Iron-Binding Proteins 415

Avidin 415

spices and their essential oils 416

onions and Garlic 416

Isothiocyanates 416

Phenolic Compounds 417

Summary 417

Suggested reading 417

Questions for critical thought 418

Chapter: 26 Biologically Based Preservation and Probiotic Bacteria

Introduction 419

Biopreservation by Controlled Acidification 420

Bacteriocins 420

General Characteristics 420

Bacteriocin Applications in Foods 422

Probiotic Bacteria 426

the Human GI tract Is a Microbial ecosystem 427

Summary 430

Suggested reading 430

Questions for critical thought 430

Chapter: 27 Physical Methods of Food Preservation

Introduction 432

Physical Dehydration Processes 432

Drying 432

Freeze-Drying 433

Cool Storage 433

Controlled-Atmosphere storage 434

Modified-Atmosphere Packaging 434

Freezing and Frozen Storage 435

Chapter: 24 Viruses and Prions

Introduction 379

Viruses 380

elementary Virology 380

Viruses as Agents of Foodborne Illness 383

Bacteriophages in the Dairy Industry 392

Beneficial Uses of Viruses 394

Prions 394

A short History of the Prion 395

Prion Biology 397

Summary 398

Suggested reading 398

Questions for critical thought 399

Preservation by Heat Treatments 436

technological Fundamentals 436

Thermo bacteriology 438

Calculating Heat Processes for Foods 443

Summary 445

Suggested reading 445

Questions for critical thought 445

Chapter: 28 Nonthermal Processing

Introduction 448

Acceptance 449

High-Pressure Processing 452

Ozone 455

Ultraviolet Light 458

Pulsed Electric Fields and Pulsed Light 460

Oscillating Magnetic Fields 461

Ultrasound 462

Conclusions 463

Summary 463

Suggested reading 464

Questions for critical thought 464

Chapter: 29 Sanitation and Related Practices

Introduction 465

Food Safety Objectives 465

Good Manufacturing Practices 466

General Provisions (subpart A) 467

Buildings and Facilities (subpart B) 467

equipment (subpart C) 467

Production and Process Controls (subpart e) 468

DALs (subpart G) 468

Sanitation 471

SSOPS 474

HACCP 474

Conclusions 481

Summary 482

Suggested reading 482

Questions for critical thought 482

Critical Thinking Skills 485

Useful Websites for Food Safety Information 488

Glossary 491

Answers to Crossword Puzzles 501

Answers to Selected Questions for Critical Thought 503

Index 521

GET THIS BOOK
Categories:
Similar Books

0 comments: