Introduction to Fungi

Introduction to Fungi
 
Author:
John Webster, Roland Weber
Release at: 2007
Pages: 875
Edition:
Third Edition
File Size: 21 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English


Content of Introduction to Fungi



Chapter1 Introduction 1


1.1 What are fungi? 1


1.2 Physiology of the growing hypha 3


1.3 Hyphal aggregates 14


1.4 Spores of fungi 22


1.5 Taxonomy of fungi 32


Chapter 2 Protozoa: Myxomycota (slime molds) 40


2.1 Introduction 40


2.2 Acrasiomycetes: acrasid cellular slime molds 40


2.3 Dictyosteliomycetes: dictyostelid slime molds 41


2.4 Protosteliomycetes: protostelid plasmodial slime molds 45


2.5 Myxomycetes: true (plasmodial) slime molds 47


Chapter 3 Protozoa:Plasmodiophoromycota 54


3.1 Introduction 54


3.2 Plasmodiophorales 54


3.3 Control of diseases caused through Plasmodiophorales 62


3.4 Haptoglossa (Haptoglossales) 64


Chapter 4 Straminipila: minor fungalphyla 67


4.1 Introduction 67


4.2 The straminipilous flagellum 68


4.3 Hyphochytriomycota 70


4.4 Labyrinthulomycota 71


Chapter 5 Straminipila: Oomycota 75


5.1 Introduction 75


5.2 Saprolegniales 79


5.3 Pythiales 95


5.4 Peronosporales 115


5.5 Sclerosporaceae 125


Chapter 6 Chytridiomycota 127


6.1 Introduction 127


6.2 Chytridiales 134


6.3 Spizellomycetales 145


6.4 Neocallimastigales (rumen fungi) 150


6.5 Blastocladiales 153


6.6 Monoblepharidales 162


Chapter 7 Zygomycota 165


7.1 Introduction 165


7.2 Zygomycetes: Mucorales 165


7.3 Examples of Mucorales 180


7.4 Zoopagales 200


7.5 Entomophthorales 202


7.6 Glomales 217


7.7 Trichomycetes 222


Chapter 8 Ascomycota (ascomycetes) 226


8.1 Introduction 226


8.2 Vegetative structures 226


8.3 Life cycles of ascomycetes 228


8.4 Conidia of ascomycetes 230


8.5 Conidium production in ascomycetes 231


8.6 Development of asci 236


8.7 Types of fruit body 245


8.8 Fossil ascomycetes 246


8.9  economic and Scientific significance of ascomycetes 246


8.10 Classification 247


Chapter 9 Archiascomycetes 250


9.1 Introduction 250


9.2 Taphrinales 251


9.3 Schizosaccharomycetales 253


9.4 Pneumocystis 259


Chapter10 Hemiascomycetes 261


10.1 Introduction 261


10.2 Saccharomyces (Saccharomycetaceae) 263


10.3 Candida (anamorphic Saccharomycetales) 276


10.4 Pichia (Saccharomycetaceae) 281


10.5 Galactomyces (Dipodascaceae) 281


10.6 Saccharomycopsis (Saccharomycopsidaceae) 282


10.7 Eremothecium (Eremotheciaceae) 284


Chapter11 Plectomycetes 285


11.1 Introduction 285


11.2 Ascosphaerales 286


11.3 Onygenales 289


11.4 Eurotiales 297


Chapter12 Hymenoascomycetes: Pyrenomycetes 315


12.1 Introduction 315


12.2 Sordariales 315


12.3 Xylariales 332


12.4 Hypocreales 337


12.5 Clavicipitales 348


12.6 Ophiostomatales 364


12.7 Microascales 368


12.8 Diaporthales 373


12.9 Magnaporthaceae 377


12.10 Glomerellaceae 386


Chapter13 Hymenoascomycetes: Erysiphales 390


13.1 Introduction 390


13.2 Phylogenetic aspects 392


13.3 Blumeria graminis 393


13.4 Erysiphe 401


13.5 Podosphaera and Sphaerotheca 404


13.6 Sawadaea 405


13.7 Phyllactinia and Leveillula 405


13.8 Control of powdery mildew diseases 408


Chapter14 Hymenoascomycetes:Pezizales (operculate discomycetes) 414


14.1 Introduction 414


14.2 Pyronema (Pyronemataceae) 415


14.3 Alegria (Pyronemataceae) 417


14.4 Peziza (Pezizaceae) 419


14.5 Ascobolus (Ascobolaceae) 419


14.6 Helvella (Helvellaceae) 423


14.7 Tuber (Tuberaceae) 423


14.8 Morchella (Morchellaceae) 427


Chapter15 Hymenoascomycetes: Helotiales (inoperculate discomycetes) 429


15.1 Introduction 429


15.2 Sclerotiniaceae 429


15.3 Dermateaceae 439


15.4 Rhytismataceae 440


15.5 Other representatives of the Helotiales 442


Chapter16 Lichenizedfungi (chiefly Hymenoascomycetes:Lecanorales) 446


16.1 Introduction 446


16.2 General aspects of lichen biology 447


16.3 Lecanorales 455


Chapter17 Loculoascomycetes 459


17.1 Introduction 459


17.2 Pleosporales 460


17.3 Dothideales 480


Chapter18 Basidiomycota 487


18.1 Introduction 487


18.2 Basidium morphology 487


18.3 Development of basidia 488


18.4 Basidiospore development 490


18.5 The mechanism of basidiospore discharge 493


18.6 Numbers of basidiospores 495


18.7 Basidiospore germination and hyphal growth 496


18.8 Asexual reproduction 501


18.9 Mating systems in basidiomycetes 506


18.10 Fungal individualism: vegetative incompatibility between dikaryon 510


18.11 Relationships 511


18.12 Classification 512


Chapter19 Homobasidiomycetes 514


19.1 Introduction 514


19.2 Structure and morphogenesis of basidiocarps 517


19.3 Importance of homobasidiomycetes 525


19.4 Euagarics clade 532


19.5 Boletoid clade 555


19.6 Polyporoid clade 560


19.7 Russuloid clade 566


19.8 Thelephoroid clade 572


19.9 Hymenochaetoid clade 573


19.10 Cantharelloid clade 574


19.11 Gomphoid?phylloid clade 575


Chapter 20 Homobasidiomycetes: gasteromycetes 577


20.1 Introduction 577


20.2 Evolution and phylogeny of gasteromycetes 578


20.3 Gasteromycetes in the euagarics clade 581


20.4 Gasteromycetes in the solenoid clade 585


20.5 Gasteromycetes in the lymphoid?phylloid clade 588


Chapter 21 Heterobasidiomycetes 593


21.1 Introduction 593


21.2 Ceratobasidiales 594


21.3 Dacrymycetales 598


21.4 Auriculariales 601


21.5 Tremellales 604


Chapter 22 Urediniomycetes:Uredinales (rustfungi) 609


22.1 Urediniomycetes 609


22.2 Uredinales: the rust fungi 609


22.3 P. graminis, the cause of black stem rust 620


22.4 Other cereal rusts 627


22.5 Puccinia and Uromyces 629


22.6 Other members of the Pucciniaceae 631


22.7 Melampsoraceae 634


Chapter 23 U. mycetes: smut fungi and their allies 636


23.1 Ustilaginomycetes 636


23.2 The ‘true’ smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) 636


23.3 Microbotryales (Urediniomycetes) 652


23.4 Exobasidiales (Ustilaginomycetes) 655


Chapter 24 Basidiomyceteyeasts 658


24.1 Introduction 658


24.2 Heterobasidiomycete yeasts 660


24.3 Urediniomycete yeasts 666


24.4 Ustilaginomycete yeasts 670


Chapter 25 Anamorphic fungi aquatic forms and nematophagous  673


25.1 Nematophagous fungi 673


25.2 Aquatic hyphomycetes (Ingoldian fungi) 685


25.3 Aero-aquatic fungi 696


References 702


Index 817

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