IPTV Security

IPTV Security
 
Author:
David Ramirez
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN No: 978-0-470-51924-0
Release at: 2008
Pages: 255
Edition:
First Edition
File Size: 3 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Content of IPTV Security



1 Introduction to IPTV 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 General Threats to IPTV Deployments 3

1.2.1 Access Fraud 4

1.2.2 Unauthorized Broadcasting 5

1.2.3 Access Interruption 5

1.2.4 Content Corruption 6

2 Principles Supporting IPTV 9

2.1 History of Video and Television 9

2.1.1 Television 10

2.2 Viewing Experience of Video 15

2.2.1 Line Scanning 15

2.2.2 Video Resolution 15

2.2.3 Number of Pictures per Second 16

2.2.4 Aspect Ratio 16

2.2.5 Video Compression Method 16

2.3 Video Compression 16

2.3.1 MPEG-2 17

2.3.2 H.263 18

2.3.3 MPEG-4 18

2.4 TCP/IP Principles 19

2.4.1 Addresses 19

2.4.2 Routing 20

2.4.2.1 IP Packet 20

2.5 Summary 21

References 22

Bibliography 22

3 IPTV Architecture 23

3.1 High-level Architecture 23

3.1.1 Service Types 25

3.2 Functional Architecture for the IPTV Service 25

3.2.1 Content Provision 26

3.2.2 Content Delivery 26

3.2.3 IPTV Control 26

3.2.4 Subscriber Functions 26

3.2.5 Security 27

3.3 Detailed IPTV Architecture 28

3.3.1 Head End (IPTV Service Provider) 28

3.3.1.1 Critical Elements of the Head End 29

3.3.1.2 Content Input 30

3.3.1.3 MPEG Video Encoder 32

3.3.1.4 IP Encapsulator 33

3.3.1.5 Video Transcoder 34

3.3.1.6 Content Management Server 34

3.3.1.7 Video Repository 35

3.3.1.8 Digital Rights Management 36

3.3.1.9 Video Streaming Server 37

3.3.1.10 Subscriber Interaction 37

3.3.2 Transport and Aggregation Network (IPTV Network Provider) 40

3.3.2.1 RP and RTSP 49

3.3.2.2 RTSP 49

3.3.2.3 Ismacryp 51

3.3.2.4 PIM 52

3.3.2.5 MSDP 53

3.3.2.6 DSM-CC 53

3.3.2.7 Internet Service Provider 53

3.3.2.8 DSLAM 53

3.3.3 Home End (Subscriber) 57

3.3.3.1 Set Top Box 58

3.4 Summary 61

References 62

4 Intellectual Property 63

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Supporting Technology 73

4.2.1 Symmetric Key Cryptography 73

4.2.2 Asymmetric Key Cryptography 74

4.2.3 Hybrid Encryption 74

4.2.4 Hash – Digest 74

4.2.5 Commonly Used Algorithms 75

4.2.6 Public Key Infrastructure and ITU-T Recommendation X.509 76

4.2.7 Operation of PKI 80

4.2.8 Secure Socket Layer and Transport Layer Security 81

4.3 General Mechanisms for Content Protection 82

4.3.1 CPS 82

4.3.2 CAS 83

4.3.3 DRM 83

4.4 Operation of DRM on IPTV 86

4.4.1 DRM Applied to VOD 87

4.4.2 DRM Applied to Broadcast TV 88

4.4.3 Smart Cards and DRM 88

4.4.4 Storage Protection 89

4.4.4.1 VCPS 89

4.4.4.2 CPRM/CPPM (CPSA) 89

4.4.5 Open DRMs 89

4.4.5.1 SDMI 89

4.4.5.2 OMA DRM 90

4.4.5.3 DMP 90

4.4.5.4 MPEG21 91

4.4.5.5 MPEG21 REL Data Model 91

4.4.5.6 DVB-CPCM 91

4.4.5.7 DVB-CBMS 91

4.4.5.8 PERM 92

4.4.5.9 DCAS 92

4.4.5.10 DReaM 92

4.4.5.11 OpenIPMP 93

4.4.5.12 OpenCA 93

4.4.5.13 PachyDRM 93

4.4.6 Interoperability Proposals 93

4.4.6.1 Coral 93

4.4.6.2 DMP 94

4.4.6.3 SmartRight 94

4.4.6.4 SVP 94

4.4.6.5 OpenCP 95

4.4.6.6 OMArlin 95

4.5 Watermarking and Fingerprinting 95

4.5.1 History 95

4.5.2 Steganography Techniques 98

4.5.3 Watermarking and Fingerprinting Principles 99

4.5.4 Typical Attacks 101

4.5.5 Forensic Use of Digital Fingerprints 103

4.6 WWW? (What Went Wrong?) 105

4.6.1 Introduction 105

4.6.2 Satellite Television 106

4.6.3 DVD Protection 107

4.6.4 AACS on Blue-Ray and HD-DVD 108

4.6.5 Videos Over the Web 110

4.7 Authentication 111

4.8 Summary 111

References 112

Bibliography 113

5 Existing Threats to IPTV Implementations 115

5.1 Introduction to IPTV Threats 118

5.1.1 Specific Threats to IPTV Environments 120

5.2 IPTV Service Provider – Head End 125

5.2.1 Video Feeds – Live or Prerecorded (Physical Media, OTA, etc.) 126

5.2.2 Video Switch 126

5.2.3 Ingest Gateway (Video Capture) 127

5.2.4 Platform SW/OS – Stored/Running 127

5.2.5 Content Management System 127

5.2.6 Content Metadata from Video Repository 128

5.2.7 MPEG-2 Content from Video Repository 128

5.2.8 MPEG-4 Content 128

5.2.9 Load Balancer Software 129

5.2.10 Master Video Streaming Software 129

5.2.11 CA/DRM Service 129

5.2.12 SRTP Keys 129

5.2.13 Ismacryp Key 130

5.2.14 Key Management Protocol 130

5.2.15 CA/DRM Service Administration 131

5.2.16 VOD Application – Cached Video Content Metadata 131

5.2.17 Cached MPEG-2/MPEG-4 Content (Primary and Secondary Storage) 131

5.2.18 Video Streaming Software 132

5.2.19 Local Ad Insertion Authentication Information (e.g. User ID(s) and Password(s)) 132

5.2.20 Local Ad Metadata 132

5.2.21 Local Ad MPEG-2/MPEG-4 Content 133

5.2.22 Local Ad Insertion Tracking Information 133

5.2.23 nPVR Application Recorded/Stored Content Metadata 133

5.2.24 Recorded/Stored MPEG-2/MPEG-4 Content 134

5.2.25 nPVR/Video Recording Software 134

5.3 IPTV Network Provider – Transport and Aggregation Network 134

5.3.1 Protocol Vulnerabilities 134

5.3.2 Content Distribution Service: Unicast Content Propagation – FTP or Other Transport Protocol 137

5.3.3 Multicast Content Propagation 137

5.3.3.1 IGMPv2/v3 (Snooping) 137

5.3.3.2 PIM (SM, SSM, Snooping) 138

5.3.3.3 MBGP 139

5.3.3.4 MSDP 139

5.3.3.5 MFTP 140

5.3.3.6 RTP 141

5.3.4 QoS Signaling (RSVP, DiffServ) 141

5.3.5 Management of Content Distribution Service 142

5.3.6 Connection Management Service 142

5.3.6.1 DSM-CC Protocol 143

5.3.6.2 RTSP Protocol 143

5.3.6.3 MPEG-2 Video Stream 143

5.3.6.4 MPEG-4 Video Stream 144

5.3.6.5 DSM-CC 144

5.3.6.6 RTSP 145

5.4 IPTV Subscriber – Home End 145

5.4.1 Set Top Box 145

5.4.2 STB Executing Software 147

5.4.2.1 DRM Software 147

5.4.2.2 Middleware Client SW 147

5.4.2.3 STB Platform SW 148

5.4.2.4 DVR/PVR 148

5.4.2.5 STB Credentials 149

5.4.2.6 Digital Certificate (Software Provider) 150

5.4.2.7 STB Digital Certificate 150

5.4.2.8 Public Keys (Used for Digital Certificates) 151

5.4.3 STB User Storage 151

5.4.3.1 Downloaded Content 151

5.4.3.2 User-created Content 152

5.4.3.3 STB Smart Card 152

5.4.3.4 STB Credentials 152

5.4.3.5 STB Digital Certificate 153

5.4.3.6 STB High-definition Output Interface 153

5.4.3.7 DVI 154

5.4.4 Residential Gateway 154

5.4.5 DSLAM 154

5.4.5.1 Audience Metering Information 154

5.4.5.2 Fraud Control Information 155

5.4.5.3 IP Filters 155

5.4.6 Broadcast/Multicast TV VLAN Service 156

5.4.6.1 Decryption Keys 156

5.4.6.2 CWMP 157

5.4.6.3 NTP/SNTP 157

5.4.7 Broadcast/Multicast TV Application 158

5.4.7.1 MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 Video Stream 158

5.4.7.2 DSM-CC 158

5.4.8 Middleware Application 158

5.4.8.1 EPG 158

5.4.8.2 Menus 159

5.4.8.3 Subscriber Credentials 159

5.4.8.4 Purchasing Information 160

5.4.8.5 Digital Certificates (Content Provider) 161

5.4.8.6 Parental Controls 161

5.4.8.7 PVR/DVR Application 162

5.4.8.8 User-sourced Content 162

5.4.9 Application Management 163

5.4.9.1 IPTV Usage Information 163

5.4.9.2 IPTV Billing Information 164

5.5 Conclusion 165

6 Countering the Threats 167

6.1 Securing the Basis 167

6.1.1 Hardening Operating Systems 167

6.1.2 Business Continuity 172

6.1.3 Intrusion Detection/Intrusion Prevention 173

6.1.4 Network Firewalls 174

6.1.5 Fraud Prevention 175

6.1.6 DRM–CAS 176

6.2 Head End (IPTV Service Provider) 176

6.2.1 Critical Elements of the Head End 176

6.2.2 Content Input 177

6.2.2.1 Satellite Feed 177

6.2.2.2 Premium and Direct-feed Content, Pre-encoded Content Ready to be encapsulated 178

6.2.2.3 Physical Media 179

6.2.3 MPEG Video Encoder and Video Transcoder Functions 179

6.2.4 IP Encapsulator 180

6.2.5 Content Management Server 182

6.2.6 Video Repository 182

6.2.7 Digital Rights Management 184

6.2.8 Video Streaming Server 187

6.2.8.1 IGMPv2/v3 188

6.2.8.2 MBGP 188

6.2.8.3 MSDP 188

6.2.8.4 RTP 188

6.2.8.5 RTSP Packets 189

6.2.8.6 RSVP 189

6.2.9 Middleware Server 189

6.3 Aggregation and Transport Network 190

6.3.1 DSLAM 190

6.3.1.1 Access and Session Control 191

6.3.1.2 Routing 193

6.3.1.3 User Segregation 193

6.3.1.4 Quality of Service 194

6.3.1.5 Virtual Networks and Virtual Circuits 194

6.3.1.6 802.1X Authentication 195

6.3.2 Firewalls 196

6.4 Home End 197

6.4.1 Residential Gateway 197

6.4.1.1 Filtering 197

6.4.1.2 Quality of Service 198

6.4.2 Set Top Box 198

6.4.2.1 Secure Processor 198

6.4.2.2 DRM 200

6.4.2.3 Output Protection 200

6.5 Secure IPTV a Reality 201

References 202

Appendix 1 Converged Video Security 205

A1.1 Introduction 205

A1.2 Threats to IPTV Deployments 205

A1.3 Protecting Intellectual Property 206

A1.4 VOD and Broadcast 207

A1.5 Smart Cards and DRM 208

A1.6 Countering the Threats 208

A1.6.1 Threat References 210

A1.6.2 Threat Models 211

Appendix 2 Federated Identity in IPTV Environments 217

A2.1 Introduction 217

A2.2 IPTV Federated Identity Solutions 217

A2.2.1 SAML for Security 218

A2.2.1.1 The SAML Process 218

A2.2.1.2 Reviewing Existing Standards 220

A2.3 Applicability to an IPTV Security Environment 220

A2.3.1 Internal Applications 220

A2.3.2 Set Top Box Security 221

A2.4 Video on Demand 221

Appendix 3 Barbarians at the Gate 223

A3.1 Barbarians at the Gate 223

A3.2 How to Break an IPTV Environment 224

A3.3 Network Under Siege 224

A3.3.1 Confidentiality 224

A3.3.2 Integrity 225

A3.3.3 Availability 225

A3.4 Countermeasures 225

A3.4.1 Set Top Box 225

A3.4.2 DSLAM 226

A3.4.3 Routing 227

A3.4.4 User Segregation 228

A3.4.5 Quality of Service 228

A3.4.6 Virtual Networks and Virtual Circuits 229

A3.5 Conclusion 229

Index 231

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