Marine Microbiology

Marine Microbiology
 
Author:
Se-Kwon Kim
Release at: 2013
Pages: 580
Edition:
First Edition
File Size: 17 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English


Content of Marine Microbiology



1 Introduction to Marine Actinobacteria 1
Panchanathan Manivasagan, Jayachandran Venkatesan, and Se-Kwon Kim
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Actinobacteria 2
1.3 Origin and Distribution of Marine Actinobacteria 2
1.4 Isolation and Identification of Marine Actinobacteria 3
1.5 Indigenous Marine Actinobacteria 4
1.6 Role of Actinobacteria in the Marine Environment 5
1.7 Importance of Marine Actinobacteria 5
1.7.1 Antibiotics 5
1.7.2 Melanins 6
1.7.3 Enzymes 6
1.7.3.1 a-Amylase 6
1.7.3.2 Proteases 7
1.7.3.3 Cellulases 7
1.7.3.4 Chitinase 8
1.7.3.5 Keratinase 8
1.7.3.6 Xylanases 9
1.7.4 Enzyme Inhibitors 9
1.7.5 Anticancer Compounds 9
1.8 Symbioses 10
1.9 Bioinformatics 11
1.10 Conclusions 11
References 12
2 Treasure Hunting for Useful Microorganisms in the Marine
Environment 21
Chiaki Imada
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Microorganisms Living in the Marine Environment 21
2.2.1 Protease Inhibitor Produced by Marine Bacterium 21
2.2.2 Chitinase Inhibitor Produced by Marine Bacterium 22
2.2.3 Antibiotics Produced by Marine Bacteria 23
2.2.4 Antibiotics Produced by Marine Actinomycetes 24
2.2.5 Antibiotic Produced by Marine Fungi 25
2.2.6 Tyrosinase Inhibitor Produced by Marine Fungi 26
2.3 Microorganisms Living in Deep Sea Water 26
2.3.1 Isolation and Incubation of Lactic Acid Bacteria
from Deep Sea Water 28
References 30
3 Strategy of Marine Viruses in Global Ecosystem 33
Amardeep Singh, Manoj Trivedi, Pranjal Chandra, and Rajendra N. Goyal
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 Reproductive Strategies of Viruses 33
3.2.1 Lytic Infection 34
3.2.2 Chronic Infection 34
3.2.3 Lysogeny Infection 34
3.3 Abundance of Marine Viruses 35
3.4 Viral Activities in Ecosystems 36
3.4.1 Diversity Regulation 36
3.4.2 Rate of Resistance 37
3.4.3 Lysogeny 39
3.4.4 The Exchange of Genetic Material 39
3.5 Recent Advancement of Viruses versus Diseases 40
3.6 The Effect of Ocean Acidification on Marine Viruses 41
3.7 Further Aspects 41
Acknowledgments 41
References 42
4 Taxonomic Study of Antibiotic-Producing Marine Actinobacteria 45
Priyanka Kishore, Neelam Mangwani, Hirak R. Dash, and Surajit Das
4.1 Introduction 45
4.2 Materials and Methods 48
4.2.1 Study Area and Sampling 48
4.2.2 Isolation of Actinomycetes 48
4.2.3 Screening for Antimicrobial Activity 48
4.2.4 Identification and Systematics 49
4.2.4.1 Phenotypic Characterization 49
4.2.4.2 Physiological and Biochemical Characterization 49
4.2.4.3 Chemotaxonomical Characterization 50
4.3 Result 50
4.4 Discussion 53
4.5 Conclusion 55
Acknowledgments 55
References 55
5 Marine Cyanobacteria: A Prolific Source of Bioactive Natural Products as
Drug Leads 59
Lik Tong Tan
5.1 Introduction 59
5.2 Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Marine Cyanobacteria 60
5.2.1 Anticancer Agents 60
5.2.1.1 Microtubule-Interfering Compounds 60
5.2.1.2 Actin-Stabilizing Agents 61
5.2.1.3 Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors 62
5.2.1.4 p53/MDM2 Inhibitor 63
5.2.1.5 Proteasome Inhibitors 64
5.2.1.6 Protease Inhibitors 65
5.2.1.7 Apoptosis-Inducing Agents 67
5.2.1.8 Other Potent Cytotoxic Compounds 68
5.2.2 Neuromodulating Agents 70
5.2.3 Modulators of the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels and Calcium
Oscillation 71
5.2.4 Cannabinomimetic Agents 74
5.2.5 Anti-Infective Agents 74
5.2.5.1 Antiprotozoal Agents 74
5.2.5.2 Antimycobacterial Agents 77
5.2.5.3 Anti-Inflammatory Agents 77
5.3 Conclusions 78
Acknowledgment 78
References 78
6 Marine Bacteria Are an Attractive Source to Overcome the Problems of
Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 83
Dae-Sung Lee, Sung-Hwan Eom, Myung-Suk Lee, and Young-Mog Kim
6.1 Introduction 83
6.1.1 Mechanisms of Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics 83
6.1.2 Prevalence of MRSA 84
6.2 Strategies for Overcoming Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria 86
6.2.1 Synthesis of New Chemical Entities 86
6.2.2 Screening NCEs for New Antibiotics 87
6.2.3 Synergistic Effect of Combination of Commercial Antibiotics 87
6.2.4 The Genomics Revolution 87
6.2.5 Bacteriophages 88
6.2.6 Marine Bacteria Producing an Antibacterial Substance 88
6.3 Marine Bacteria Are Attractive Natural Sources for Overcoming
Antibiotic Resistance of MRSA 89
6.3.1 Isolation of an Anti-MRSA Substance from Marine Bacteria 89
6.3.2 Antibacterial Activity of 1-Acetyl-b-Carboline 90
6.3.3 Combination Effect of 1-Acetyl-b-Carboline and b-Lactams against
MRSA 91
References 93
7 Marine Bacteria as Probiotics and Their Applications in Aquaculture 97
Chamilani Nikapitiya
7.1 Introduction 97
7.2 Definition of Probiotics in Aquaculture 99
7.3 Selecting and Developing Probiotics in Aquaculture 101
7.4 Effects of Probiotics on Aquatic Organisms 103
7.4.1 Possible Mode of Action 103
7.4.1.1 Competitive Exclusion 103
7.4.1.2 Antagonisms 104
7.4.1.3 Probiotics as Immune Stimulants 104
7.4.1.4 Antiviral Effects 106
7.4.1.5 Digestive Process 106
7.4.1.6 Adhesion 107
7.5 Probiotics in the Larviculture 108
7.5.1 Probiotics in the Larviculture of Mollusks 108
7.5.2 Probiotics in the Larviculture of Crustaceans 110
7.5.3 Probiotics in the Larviculture of Finfish 112
7.5.3.1 Probiotics in Fish Juvenile and Adults 114
7.6 Problems Associated with Probiotics Development 115
7.7 Further Work and Conclusions 116
References 117
8 Small-Molecule Antibiotics from Marine Bacteria and Strategies to
Prevent Rediscovery of Known Compounds 127
Matthias Wietz, Maria Ma
? nsson, Nikolaj G. Vynne, and Lone Gram
8.1 Antibiotic Activity of Marine Bacteria 127
8.2 Structurally Elucidated Marine Bacterial Antibiotics 128
8.2.1 Actinobacteria 128
8.2.2 Pseudoalteromonas spp. 131
8.2.3 Vibrionaceae 132
8.2.4 Antibiotic Compounds from Other Phylogenetic Groups 134
8.2.4.1 Firmicutes 134
8.2.4.2 Roseobacter clade 135
8.2.4.3 Pseudomonas spp. 136
8.2.4.4 Cyanobacteria 136
8.3 Cosmopolitan Antibiotics: the Rediscovery Problem 138
8.4 Future Strategies for the Discovery of Marine Bacterial Antibiotics 139
8.4.1 Accessing Novel Marine Bacterial Natural Products through Improved
Cultivation and Sampling Approaches 140
8.4.2 Eliciting Production of Antibiotics by Activating “Silent” Biosynthetic
Pathways 141
8.4.3 Genome-Based Natural Product Research 142
8.5 Conclusions and Perspectives 143
References 143
9 Marine Bacteriophages for the Biocontrol of Fish and Shellfish
Diseases 161
Mahanama De Zoysa
9.1 Introduction 161
9.2 Mode of Action of Phages 162
9.3 Diversity of Marine Phages 163
9.4 Application of Marine Phages to Control Fish and Shellfish
Diseases 165
9.5 Potentials and Limitations of Phage Therapy in Marine Fish and
Shellfish 167
Acknowledgment 169
References 169
10 Marine Actinomycetes as Source of Pharmaceutically Important
Compounds 173
M.L. Arvinda swamy
10.1 Introduction 173
10.2 Marine Actinomycetes as Source of Therapeutics 173
10.3 Marine Actinomycete Compounds as Antibacterials 174
10.4 Marine Actinomycete Compounds as Antitumors/
Antiproliferative 177
10.5 Marine Actinomycete Enzymes as Antiproliferatives 181
10.6 Marine Actinomycete Compounds as Antimalarials 182
10.7 Marine Actinomycete Compounds as Antifungals 184
10.8 Bioactive Compounds from Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes 184
10.9 Conclusion 187
Acknowledgment 187
References 187
11 Antimicrobial Agents from Marine Cyanobacteria and
Actinomycetes 191
Arnab Pramanik, Malay Saha, and Barindra Sana
11.1 Introduction 191
11.2 Antimicrobials from Marine Actinomycetes 192
11.2.1 Antibacterial Activity 192
11.2.2 Antifungal Activity 194
11.2.3 Antiviral Activity 195
11.3 Antimicrobials from Marine Cyanobacteria 196
11.3.1 Antibacterial Activity 196
11.3.2 Antifungal Activity 197
11.3.3 Antiviral Activity 198
11.4 Current Research Status: Challenges and Future Prospects 199
11.5 Conclusions 201
References 201
12 Bioactive Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes 207
Ana M. ? I~ niguez-Martínez, Graciela Guerra-Rivas, Nahara E. Ayala-S? anchez,
and Irma E. Soria-Mercado
12.1 Introduction 207
12.2 Actinomycetes 207
12.3 Diversity and Distribution of Marine Actinobacteria 208
12.4 Bioactive Compounds 210
12.5 Conclusions 217
Acknowledgment 217
References 217
13 Fungal Bioactive Gene Clusters: A Molecular Insight 223
Ira Bhatnagar and Se-Kwon Kim
13.1 Introduction to Fungal Secondary Metabolites 223
13.2 Polyketide Synthase 225
13.2.1 Classification of Fungal PKS 226
13.2.1.1 Nonreducing PKSs 227
13.2.1.2 Partially Reducing PKSs 228
13.2.1.3 Highly Reducing PKSs 229
13.3 Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase 229
13.4 PKS and NRPS Products 231
13.4.1 Fungal PKS Products: Aflatoxin and Fusarin 231
13.4.2 Fungal NRPS Products: Penicillin/Cephalosporin and
Diketopiperazine 232
13.5 Conclusions 233
Acknowledgments 233
References 234
14 Anticancer Potentials of Marine-Derived Fungal Metabolites 237
Se-Kwon Kim and Pradeep Dewapriya
14.1 Introduction 237
14.2 Marine Fungi 238
14.3 Cancer: Initiation, Progression, and Therapeutics 238
14.4 Anticancer Metabolites of Marine Fungal Origin 239
14.4.1 Cytotoxic and Antitumor Compounds 239
14.4.2 Apoptosis Inducing Metabolites 241
14.4.3 Antimetastasis Compounds 241
14.4.4 Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Compounds 242
14.5 Future Prospects and Concluding Remarks 243
References 243
15 Antifungal and Antimycotoxin Activities of Marine Actinomycetes and
Their Compounds 247
Pei-Sheng Yan, Li-Xin Cao, and Jing Ren
15.1 Introduction 247
15.2 Diversity of Actinomycetes in the Sea 247
15.2.1 Free-Living Marine Actinomycetes 247
15.2.2 Organisms-Associated Marine Actinomycetes 249
15.3 Diversity of Natural Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes 250
15.3.1 Aminoglycosides 251
15.3.2 Macrolides 251
15.3.3 Polyketides 251
15.3.4 Enzymes and Proteins 251
15.3.5 Other Substances 252
15.4 Biological Activities 252
15.4.1 Antifungal Activities Against Clinical and Human
Pathogens 252
15.4.2 Antifungal Activities Against Plant Fungal Pathogens 253
15.4.3 Antimycotoxin Activities 255
15.5 Conclusions 256
Acknowledgments 256
References 256
16 Antituberculosis Materials from Marine Microbes 261
Quang Van Ta and Se-Kwon Kim
16.1 Introduction 261
16.2 Marine Microbe-Derived Antituberculosis Agents 262
16.2.1 Alkaloids 262
16.2.2 Lipids 263
16.2.3 Peptides 263
16.2.4 Terpenes 264
16.3 Conclusions 264
References 265
17 Harnessing the Chemical and Genetic Diversities of Marine
Microorganisms for Medical Applications 267
Xinqing Zhao, Wence Jiao, and Xiaona Xu
17.1 Introduction 267
17.2 Novel MNPs 268
17.3 Gene-Based Studies of MNPs 279
17.4 MNPs Discovery Using Genome Mining 281
17.4.1 Genome Mining of Peptide Products Using MALDI-TOF Mass
Spectrometry-Based Approaches 284
17.4.2 Comparative Metabolic Profiling for the Discovery of Novel
Compounds 285
17.4.3 Identification of the Biosynthetic Genes by Single-Cell Genome
Amplification 286
17.5 Conclusion and Prospects 286
Acknowledgments 287
References 287
18 Marine Symbiotic Microorganisms: A New Dimension in Natural
Product Research 295
S.W.A. Himaya and Se-Kwon Kim
18.1 Introduction 295
18.2 Marine Microorganisms and Their Symbiotic Relationships 296
18.3 Biologically Active Metabolites of Marine Symbiotic Microbes 297
18.3.1 Microorganisms Isolated from Marine Algae 298
18.3.2 Marine Sponge-Associated Microorganism 299
18.3.3 Marine Invertebrate-Associated Microorganisms 301
18.3.4 Microbial Association with Mangrove 302
18.4 Concluding Remarks 303
References 303
19 Application of Probiotics from Marine Microbes for Sustainable Marine
Aquaculture Development 307
Nguyen Van Duy, Le Minh Hoang, and Trang Sy Trung
19.1 Introduction 307
19.1.1 The Concept of Sustainable Development in Aquaculture 307
19.1.2 Freshwater and Marine Culture for a Sustainable Development 308
19.1.3 Current Approaches for Sustainable Marine Aquaculture
Development 308
19.1.3.1 Vaccine 308
19.1.3.2 Antibiotic Alternatives 309
19.1.3.3 Prebiotics 309
19.1.3.4 Probiotics 310
19.2 The Application of Probiotics for Marine Fishes 310
19.2.1 Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) 310
19.2.2 Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) 313
19.2.3 Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 315
19.2.4 Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus auratu) 321
19.2.5 Other Marine Fishes 323
19.2.5.1 Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) 323
19.2.5.2 Atlantic Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) 324
19.2.5.3 Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) 324
19.2.5.4 Clownfish (Amphiprion spp.) 325
19.2.5.5 Common Snook (Centropomus undecimalis) 325
19.2.5.6 Pollack (Pollachius pollachius) 326
19.2.5.7 Goldfish (Carassius auratus) 326
19.3 The Application of Probiotics for Marine Crustaceans 326
19.3.1 Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) 326
19.3.2 White Shrimp (L. vannamei) 329
19.3.3 Other Crustaceans 334
19.3.3.1 Blue Shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) 334
19.3.3.2 Western King Prawn (Penaeus latisulcatus) 334
19.3.3.3 Tropical Rock Lobster (Panulirus ornatus) 334
19.3.3.4 Crabs 335
19.4 The Application of Probiotics for Marine Mollusks 335
19.4.1 Chilean Scallop (A. purpuratus) 336
19.4.2 Pacific Oyster (C. gigas) 339
19.4.3 Other Mollusks 339
19.4.3.1 Great Scallop (P. maximus) 339
19.4.3.2 European Flat Oyster (O. edulis) 340
19.4.3.3 Cortez Oyster (C. corteziensis) 340
References 340
20 Antimicrobial Properties of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (C20:5n?3) 351
Andrew P. Desbois
20.1 Introduction 351
20.1.1 Potential of Eicosapentaenoic Acid as an Antimicrobial
Agent 351
20.1.2 Biochemistry, Biological Functions, and Natural Sources 351
20.2 Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activity and Potency 355
20.2.1 Isolation and Confirmation of Antimicrobial Activity 355
20.2.2 Antibacterial Activities 355
20.2.3 Antifungal Activities 357
20.2.4 Antagonistic Activities Against Microalgae 357
20.2.5 Antagonistic Activities Against Protozoa and Viruses 358
20.3 Structure Relationship with Activity 358
20.3.1 Importance of a Free Carboxyl Group 358
20.3.2 Importance of Unsaturated Double Bonds 359
20.4 Mechanism of Antimicrobial Action 359
20.4.1 Microbial Growth Inhibition and Cell Killing 359
20.4.2 Effects on the Cell Membrane 360
20.4.3 Effects on Other Cell Targets 361
20.5 Safety, Delivery, and Biotechnological Application 361
20.5.1 Toxicity In Vitro 361
20.5.2 Toxicity In Vivo 362
20.5.3 Delivery and Biotechnological Exploitation 362
20.6 Concluding Remarks 363
Abbreviations 364
Acknowledgment 364
References 365
21 Bioprospecting of Marine Microbial Symbionts: Exploitation of
Underexplored Marine Microorganisms 369
Ocky K. Radjasa
21.1 Introduction 369
21.2 Marine Microbial Symbionts 370
21.3 Bioethical and Supply Issues in Utilizing Marine
Invertebrates 371
21.4 Marine Fungal Symbionts of Corals as Sustainable Sources of Marine
Natural Products 372
21.5 Marine Actinomycete Symbionts as Prolific Marine Natural
Products 373
21.6 New Avenue of Research: Marine Natural Products from Fungal
Symbionts of Corals 375
21.7 Concluding Remarks 376
References 377
22 Marine Microorganisms and Their Versatile Applications in Bioactive
Compounds 379
Sougata Jana, Arijit Gandhi, Samrat Chakraborty, Kalyan K. Sen, and
Sanat K. Basu
22.1 Introduction 379
22.2 Separation and Isolation Techniques of Bioactive Compounds from
Marine Organisms 379
22.3 Different Bioactive Compounds from Marine Organisms 380
22.3.1 Bioemulsifiers and Biosurfactants 380
22.3.2 Bioactive Metabolites of Therapeutic Value 381
22.3.3 Enzymes 382
22.3.3.1 Protease 383
22.3.3.2 Lipases 383
22.3.3.3 Chitinase 384
22.3.3.4 Alginate Lyases 384
22.3.3.5 Agarase 384
22.4 Polysaccharides 384
22.5 Pigments 386
22.6 Conclusions 386
References 387
23 Metabolites of Marine Microorganisms and Their Pharmacological
Activities 393
Kustiariyah Tarman, Ulrike Lindequist, and Sabine Mundt
23.1 Introduction 393
23.2 Marine Fungi 393
23.2.1 Biological Sources of Marine Fungi 394
23.2.2 Marine Fungal Metabolites and Their Pharmacological Activities 395
23.2.3 Recent Focus on Marine Fungal Research 395
23.3 Marine Actinomycetes 397
23.3.1 Biological Sources of Marine Actinomycetes 398
23.3.2 Metabolites of Marine Actinomycetes and Their Pharmacological
Activities 398
23.3.3 Recent Focus on Marine Actinomycete Research 401
23.4 Marine Cyanobacteria 402
23.4.1 Biological Sources of Marine Cyanobacteria 402
23.4.2 Metabolites of Marine Cyanobacteria and Their Pharmacological
Activities 402
23.4.3 Recent Focus of Research on Marine Cyanobacteria 404
23.5 Conclusions 407
References 407
24 Sponges: A Reservoir for Microorganism-Derived Bioactive
Metabolites 417
Visamsetti Amarendra, Ramachandran S. Santhosh,
and Kandasamy Dhevendaran
24.1 Introduction 417
24.2 Collection of Sponges and Associated Microbes 420
24.2.1 Identification of Sponges and Extraction of Microbes 420
24.2.2 Isolation of Microbes 421
24.2.3 Extraction of Metabolites 421
24.2.4 Characterization of Biologically Active Compound 421
24.3 Bacteria 421
24.3.1 Actinobacteria 422
24.3.2 Firmicutes 424
24.3.3 Proteobacteria 425
24.3.3.1 Alphaproteobacteria 426
24.3.3.2 Betaproteobacteria 426
24.3.3.3 Gammaproteobacteria 426
24.3.3.4 Deltaproteobacteria 428
24.3.4 Verrucomicrobia 428
24.3.5 Cyanobacteria 428
24.4 Unidentified Bacteria 429
24.5 Fungi 430
24.5.1 Ascomycetes 430
24.5.2 Dothideomycetes 431
24.5.3 Eurotiomycetes 433
24.5.4 Sordariomycetes 437
24.6 Unidentified Fungal Strains from Sponges 440
24.7 Compounds in Clinical Trial and Use 440
24.8 Conclusions 447
Acknowledgments 447
References 447
25 Bioactive Marine Microorganisms for Biocatalytic Reactions
in Organic Compounds 453
Lenilson C. Rocha, Julieta R. de Oliveira, Bruna Vacondio,
Gisele N. Rodrigues, Mirna H. Regali Seleghim,
and Andr? e L. Meleiro Porto
25.1 Introduction 453
25.2 Marine Enzymes 454
25.3 Biotransformation of Natural Products by Marine Biocatalysts 455
25.4 Biodegradation of Organic Compounds by Marine Biocatalysts 459
25.5 Reduction of Carbonyl Groups (Ketones and Keto Esters) by Marine
Biocatalysts 466
25.6 Hydrolysis of Epoxides by Marine Biocatalysts 471
25.7 Collection and Isolation of Bioactive Marine Microorganisms 474
25.7.1 Fungi 477
25.7.2 Bacteria 479
25.7.3 Actinomycetes 480
25.7.4 Bacterial Extremophiles 482
25.8 Conclusions and Perspectives 483
References 484
26 Marine Microbial Enzymes: Biotechnological and Biomedical
Aspects 491
Barindra Sana
26.1 Introduction 491
26.2 Extremozymes: Most Potential Marine Enzymes 492
26.3 Biotechnological Aspects 494
26.3.1 Detergent Industry 494
26.3.2 Food Processing Industry 495
26.3.3 Chemical and Pharmaceutical Synthesis 496
26.3.4 Biotechnological Research 498
26.3.5 Leather Industry 498
26.3.6 Paper Industry 499
26.3.7 Textile Industry 499
26.3.8 Biofuel Industry 500
26.3.9 Bioremediation and Biofouling 501
26.4 Biomedical Aspects 502
26.5 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 503
References 504
27 Biomedical Applications of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids 509
Richa and Rajeshwar P. Sinha
27.1 Introduction 509
27.2 Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) 510
27.3 Distribution of MAAs 514
27.3.1 MAAs in Cyanobacteria 514
27.3.2 MAAs in Macroalgae 515
27.3.3 MAAs in Microalgae 516
27.3.3.1 Dinoflagellates 516
27.3.3.2 Prymnesiophytes 517
27.3.3.3 Raphidophytes 517
27.3.3.4 Diatoms 517
27.3.4 MAAs in Lower Invertebrates 518
27.4 Genetic Control of MAAs Synthesis 519
27.5 MAAs Induction 521
27.6 Biomedical Potentials of MAAs 522
27.7 MAAs as Photoprotectants 523
27.8 MAAs as an Antioxidant 524
27.9 MAAs as Blocker of Dimer Formation 525
27.10 MAAs as an Osmoregulator 525
27.11 Conclusions and Future Prospects 526
Acknowledgment 526
References 526
Index 535

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