Modern Food Microbiology

Modern Food Microbiology
 
Author:
James M. Jay, Martin J. Loessner & David A. Golden
Publisher:
Springer
ISBN No: 0-387-23413-6
Release at: 2005
Pages: 782
Edition:
Seventh Edition
File Size: 9 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Content of Modern Food Microbiology



Part I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1

1 History of Microorganisms in Food3

Historical Developments 4

Food Preservation 5

Food Spoilage 6

Food Poisoning 7

Food Legislation 8

Part II HABITATS, TAXONOMY, AND GROWTH PARAMETERS. 11

2 Taxonomy, Role, and Significance of Microorganisms in Foods. 13

Bacterial Taxonomy . 14

rRNA Analyses  14

Analysis of DNA. 15

The Proteobacteria 15

Primary Sources of Microorganisms Found in Foods  . 17

Synopsis of Common Foodborne Bacteria 20

Synopsis of Common Genera of Foodborne Molds 27

Synopsis of Common Genera of Foodborne Yeasts 31

3 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Parameters of Foods That Affect Microbial Growth. 39

Intrinsic Parameters. 39

pH  39

Moisture Content. 45

Oxidation-Reduction Potential. 49

Nutrient Content  52

Antimicrobial Constituents. 53

Biological Structures. 54

Extrinsic Parameters 54

Temperature of Storage 54

Relative Humidity of Environment56

Presence and Concentration of Gases in the Environment. 56

Presence and Activities of Other Microorganisms 56

Part III MICROORGANISMS IN FOODS. 61

4 Fresh Meats and Poultry. 63

Biochemical Events That Lead to Rigor Mortis64

The Biota of Meats and Poultry64

Incidence/Prevalence of Microorganisms in Fresh Red Meats66

Bacteria 68

Soy-Extended Ground Meats 73

Mechanically Deboned Meats74

Hot-Boned Meats. 75

Organ and Variety Meats77

Microbial Spoilage of Fresh Red Meats. 78

Mechanism  82

Spoilage of Fresh Livers 87

Incidence/Prevalence of Microorganisms in Fresh Poultry88

Microbial Spoilage of Poultry. 89

Carcass Sanitizing/Washing91

5 Processed Meats and Seafoods 101

Processed Meats. 101

Curing101

Smoking 103

Sausage, Bacon, Bologna, and Related Products  103

Spoilage 104

Bacon and Cured Hams. 108

Safety108

Seafoods  109

Fish and Shellfish. 109

Microorganisms109

Spoilage of Fish and Shellfish. 115

Fish. 115

Shellfish 118

6 Vegetable and Fruit Products 125

Fresh and Frozen Vegetables 125

Spoilage 128

Bacterial Agents  128

Fungal Agents. 134

Spoilage of Fruits  137

Fresh-Cut Produce138

Microbial Load138

Seed Sprouts  139

Pathogens140

Internalization of Pathogens 142

Disease Outbreaks 143

7 Milk, Fermentation, and Fermented and Nonfermented Dairy Products. 149

Fermentation. 149

Background  149

Defined and Characterized150

The Lactic Acid Bacteria150

Metabolic Pathways and Molar Growth Yields  154

Acetic Acid Bacteria 155

Dairy Products 156

Milk. 156

Processing. 157

Pasteurization. 157

General Microbiota of Milk. 158

Milk-Borne Pathogens  158

Spoilage 160

Probiotics and Prebiotics  161

Lactose Intolerance . 162

Starter Cultures, Fermented Products  . 163

Fermented Products164

Cheeses. 168

Diseases caused by Lactic Acid Bacteria 169

8 Nondairy Fermented Foods and Products  175

Meat Products  175

Fish Products . 178

Breads  . 179

Plant Products  180

Sauerkraut  . 180

Olives180

Pickles . 181

Beer, Ale, Wines, Cider, and Distilled Spirits  182

Beer and Ale  182

Wines184

Cider185

Distilled Spirits  186

Miscellaneous Products . 188

9 Miscellaneous Food Products197

Delicatessen and Related Foods 197

Eggs 198

Mayonnaise and Salad Dressing 202

Cereals, Flour, and Dough Products 203

Bakery Products. 203

Frozen Meat Pies204

Sugars, Candies, and Spices204

Nutmeats  205

Dehydrated Foods  206

Enteral Nutrient Solutions (Medical Foods) . 206

Single-Cell Protein (SCP) 207

Rationale for SCP Production 207

Organisms and Fermentation Substrates207

SCP Products. 209

Nutrition and Safety of SCP 209

Bottled Water . 210

Part IV DETERMINING MICROORGANISMS AND/OR THEIR PRODUCTS IN FOODS. 215

10 Culture, Microscopic, and Sampling Methods217

Conventional Standard Plate Count  217

Homogenization of Food Samples  . 218

The Spiral Plater  219

Membrane Filters220

Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique 221

Microcolony-DEFT 221

Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter (HGMF)  222

Microscope Colony Counts223

Agar Droplets  223

Dry Film and Related Methods223

Most Probable Numbers  224

Dye Reduction 225

Roll Tubes 225

Direct Microscopic Count (DMC)  225

Howard Mold Counts  226

Microbiological Examination of Surfaces226

Swab/Swab-Rinse Methods. 227

Contact Plate  227

Agar Syringe/“Agar Sausage” Methods 228

Other Surface Methods 228

Metabolically Injured Organisms  . 229

Recovery/Repair  231

Mechanism of Repair  233

Viable but Nonculturable Organisms  . 233

11 Chemical, Biological, and Physical Methods  . 241

Chemical Methods241

Thermostable Nuclease 241

Limulus Lysate for Endotoxins  . 244

Adenosine Triphosphate Measurement 247

Radiometry  247

Fluorogenic and Chromogenic Substrates  248

Immunological Methods 250

Serotyping  . 250

Fluorescent Antibody  251

Enrichment Serology . 252

Salmonella 1–2 Test  . 252

Radioimmunoassay 253

ELISA. 253

Gel Diffusion  . 255

Immunomagnetic Separation255

Hemagglutination256

Molecular Genetic Methods  256

Nucleic Acid (DNA) Probes 257

Polymerase Chain Reaction . 258

Lux Gene Luminescence261

Ice Nucleation Assay . 262

Fingerprinting Methods . 263

Bacteriophage Typing  263

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. 265

Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis Typing. 265

Restriction Enzyme Analysis 266

Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA266

Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis  267

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism267

Ribotyping  . 268

Microarrays 268

Physical Methods269

Biosensors  . 269

Impedance  272

Microcalorimetry . 273

Flow Cytometry274

BioSys Instrument 275

12 Bioassay and Related Methods  . 285

Whole-Animal Assays285

Mouse Lethality285

Suckling (Infant) Mouse. 288

Rabbit and Mouse Diarrhea . 288

Monkey Feeding  289

Kitten (Cat) Test289

Rabbit and Guinea Pig Skin Tests. 289

Sereny and Anton Tests. 290

Animal Models Requiring Surgical Procedures  . 290

Ligated Loop Techniques  290

The RITARD Model  . 291

Cell Culture Systems291

Human Mucosal Cells 292

Human Fetal Intestine  292

Human Ileal and Intestinal Cells 292

Guinea Pig Intestinal Cells  292

HeLa Cells . 294

Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells294

Vero Cells  . 295

Y-1 Adrenal Cell Assay. 295

Other Assays 295

Part V FOOD PROTECTION AND SOME PROPERTIES OF PSYCHROTROPHS, THERMOPHILES, AND RADIATION-RESISTANT BACTERIA 299

13 Food Protection with Chemicals, and by Biocontrol 301

Benzoic Acid and The Parabens 301

Sorbic Acid 303

The Propionates. 305

Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfites305

Nitrites and Nitrates. 306

Organisms Affected 307

The Perigo Factor. 308

Interaction with Cure Ingredients and Other Factors 308

Nitrosamines 309

Nitrite–Sorbate and Other Nitrite Combinations. 309

Mode of Action310

Summary of Nitrite Effects . 311

Food Sanitizers  312

Acidified Sodium Chlorite . 312

Electrolized oxidizing water 312

Activated Lactoferrin (ALF, Activin) . 314

Ozone (O3)  314

Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) . 315

Chlorine and Other Agents . 317

NaCl and Sugars  . 320

Indirect Antimicrobials  . 321

Antioxidants  321

Flavoring Agents . 322

Spices and Essential Oils323

Phosphates . 324

Medium-Chain Fatty Acids and Esters 324

Acetic and Lactic Acids  326

Salts of Acetic and Lactic Acids 326

Antibiotics 327

Monensin 328

Natamycin  . 329

Tetracyclines 329

Subtilin . 330

Tylosin . 330

Antifungal Agents for Fruits330

Ethylene and Propylene Oxides331

Miscellaneous Chemical Preservatives331

Chitosans 331

Dimethyl Dicarbonate  332

Ethanol . 332

Glucose Oxidase . 333

Polyamino Acids . 333

Biocontrol. 333

Microbial Interference  333

Nisin and Other Bacteriocins336

Other Bacteriocins339

Endolysins 339

Bacteriophages as Biocontrol Agents340

The Hurdle Concept. 341

14 Food Protection with Modified Atmospheres351

Definitions 351

Hypobaric (Low Pressure) Storage351

Vacuum Packaging352

Modified Atmosphere Packaging  353

Equilibrium-Modified Atmosphere353

Controlled-Atmosphere Packaging or Storage354

Primary Effects of CO2 on Microorganisms . 354

Mode of Action354

Food Products  . 356

Fresh and Processed Meats . 356

Poultry . 358

Seafoods358

The Safety of Map Foods  359

Other Pathogens  362

Spoilage of Map and Vacuum-packaged Meats363

Volatile Components of Vacuum-Packaged Meats and Poultry  365

15 Radiation Protection of Foods, and Nature of Microbial Radiation 
Resistance371

Characteristics of Radiations of Interest in Food Preservation 372

Ultraviolet Light  372

Beta Rays372

Gamma Rays 372

X-Rays . 373

Microwaves 373

Principles Underlying The Destruction of Microorganisms

by Irradiation 373

Types of Organisms373

Numbers of Organisms 374

Composition of Suspending Menstruum (Food). 374

Presence or Absence of Oxygen  374

Physical State of Food  375

Age of Organisms 375

Processing of Foods for Irradiation  375

Selection of Foods375

Cleaning of Foods 375

Packaging375

Blanching or Heat Treatment 375

Application of Radiation 376

Gamma Radiation 376

Electron Beams/Accelerated Electrons377

Radappertization, Radicidation, and Radurization of Foods  377

Definitions . 377

Radappertization . 378

Radicidation  382

Seed sprouts and other vegetables. 383

Radurization  383

Legal Status of Food Irradiation 384

Effect of Irradiation on Food Quality. 385

Storage Stability of Irradiated Foods. 387

Nature of Radiation Resistance of Microorganisms 387

Biology of Extremely Resistant Species388

Apparent Mechanisms of Resistance390

16 Protection of Foods with Low-Temperatures395

Definitions 395

Temperature Growth Minima . 396

Preparation of Foods for Freezing  396

Freezing of Foods and Freezing Effects . 399

Storage Stability of Frozen Foods . 399

Effect of Freezing on Microorganisms401

Effect of Thawing 403

Some Characteristics of Psychrotrophs and Psychrophiles  404

The Effect of Low Temperatures on Microbial

Physiologic Mechanisms406

Nature of The Low Heat Resistance

of Psychrotrophs/Psychrophiles  409

17 Food Protection with High Temperatures  415

Factors Affecting Heat Resistance of Microorganisms  416

Water  416

Fat  416

Salts  . 417

Carbohydrates  . 418

pH  418

Proteins and Other Substances  . 419

Numbers of Organisms 419

Age of Organisms 420

Growth Temperature  . 421

Inhibitory Compounds  421

Time and Temperature  421

Effect of Ultrasonics  . 422

Relative Heat Resistance of Microorganisms 422

Spore Resistance . 422

Thermal Destruction of Microorganisms 423

Thermal Death Time  . 424

D Value. 425

z Value . 426

F Value . 428

Thermal Death Time Curve . 428

12-D Concept. 429

Some Characteristics of Thermophiles429

Enzymes430

Ribosomes . 432

Flagella . 432

Other Characteristics of Thermophilic Microorganisms  432

Nutrient Requirements  432

Oxygen Tension433

Cellular Lipids433

Cellular Membranes  . 434

Effect of Temperature  434

Genetics 435

Canned Food Spoilage435

Low Acid (pH > 4.6)  435

Acid (pH 3.7–4.0 to 4.6)435

High Acid (pH < 4.0–3.7)436

18 Protection of Foods by Drying 443

Preparation and Drying of Low-Moisture Foods  443

Effect of Drying on Microorganisms. 445

Storage Stability of Dried Foods447

Intermediate-Moisture Foods  447

Preparation of IMF 448

Microbial Aspects of IMF452

Storage Stability of IMF  . 453

IMF and Glass Transition  454

19 Other Food Protection Methods  457

High Hydrostatic Pressures (HHP, HPP). 457

Some Principles and Effects of HHP on Foods and Organisms 458

Effects of HHP on Specific Foodborne Organisms459

Pulsed Electric Fields 463

Aseptic Packaging466

Manothermosonication (Thermoultrasonication)467

Part VI INDICATORS OF FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY, PRINCIPLES OF 
QUALITY CONTROL, AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CRITERIA . 471

20 Indicators of Food Microbial Quality and Safety 473


Some Indicators of Product Quality  473

Indicators of Food Safety  475

Coliforms476

Enterococci  481

Bifidobacteria. 485

Coliphages/Enteroviruses  487

The Possible Overuse of Fecal Indicator Organisms 489

Predictive Microbiology/Microbial Modeling  491

21 The HACCP and FSO Systems for Food Safety . 497

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System497

Prerequisite Programs 498

Definitions . 498

HACCP Principles499

Flow Diagrams  503

Application of HACCP Principles. 503

Some Limitations of HACCP 506

Food Safety Objective (FSO)  506

Microbiological Criteria  506

Definitions . 507

Sampling Plans  508

Microbiological Criteria and Food Safety  509

Microbiological Criteria for Various Products  511

Other Criteria/Guidelines  512

Part VII FOODBORNE DISEASES  517

22 Introduction to Foodborne Pathogens. 519

Introduction 519

Foodborne Illness Cases in the United States519

The Fecal–Oral Transmission of Foodborne Pathogens522

Host Invasion  . 522

“Universal” Requirements522

Attachment Sites . 524

Quorum Sensing. 524

Biofilms527

Apparent Role of Quorum Sensing529

Sigma (δ) Factors529

Alternative Sigma Factors529

Pathogenesis  . 532

Gram-Positive Bacteria  532

Gram-Negative Bacteria. 533

Summary . 538

23 Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis545

Species of Concern in Foods545

Habitat and Distribution  547

Incidence in Foods  548

Nutritional Requirements for Growth548

Temperature Growth Range548

Effect of Salts and Other Chemicals 548

Effect of pH, Water Activity, and Other Parameters549

NaCl and pH  549

pH, aw, and Temperature549

NaNO2, Eh, pH, and Temperature of Growth550

Staphylococcal Enterotoxins: Types and Incidence 550

Chemical and Physical Properties. 552

Production  . 554

Mode of Action557

The Gastroenteritis Syndrome . 558

Incidence and Vehicle Foods  559

Ecology of S. aureus Growth560

Prevention of Staphylococcal and Other Food-Poisoning Syndromes560

24 Food Poisoning Caused by Gram-Positive Sporeforming Bacteria . 567

Clostridium Perfringens Food Poisoning 567

Distribution of C. perfringens568

Characteristics of the Organism  568

The Enterotoxin570

Vehicle Foods and Symptoms571

Prevention  . 572

Botulism573

Distribution of C. botulinum 574

Growth of C. botulinum Strains  576

Ecology of C. botulinum Growth  578

Concerns for Sous Vide and Related Food Products  579

Nature of the Botulinal Neurotoxins580

The Adult Botulism Syndrome: Incidence and Vehicle Foods  581

Infant Botulism  582

Bacillus Cereus Gastroenteritis583

B. cereus Toxins  583

Diarrheal Syndrome  . 584

Emetic Syndrome . 585

25 Foodborne Listeriosis  . 591

Taxonomy of Listeria 591

Serotypes 594

Subspecies Typing 594

Growth595

Effect of pH 595

Combined Effect of pH and NaCl. 596

Effect of Temperature  597

Effect of aw  598

Distribution 598

The Environment . 598

Foods and Humans 598

Prevalence  . 600

Thermal Properties  600

Dairy Products601

Nondairy Products602

Effect of Sublethal Heating on Thermotolerance 603

Virulence Properties 603

Listeriolysin O and Ivanolysin O  603

Intracellular Invasion . 604

Monocytosis-Producing Activity  604

Sphingomyelinase 605

Animal Models and Infectious Dose. 605

Incidence and Nature of The Listeriosis Syndromes 606

Incidence 606

Source of Pathogens  . 607

Syndromes . 609

Resistance to Listeriosis  609

Persistence of L. monocytogenes in Foods 610

Regulatory Status of L. monocytogenes in Foods611

26 Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Salmonella and Shigella. 619

Salmonellosis  619

Serotyping of Salmonella620

Distribution  620

Growth and Destruction of Salmonellae 623

The Salmonella Food-Poisoning Syndrome  625

Salmonella Virulence Properties 625

Incidence and Vehicle Foods625

Prevention and Control of Salmonellosis  . 629

Competitive Exclusion to Reduce Salmonellae Carriage in Poultry  629

Shigellosis 631

Foodborne Cases . 634

Virulence Properties  . 634

27 Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Escherichia coli637

Serological Classification  637

The Recognized Virulence Groups 637

Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC)  637

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)639

Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) 647

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) 648

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)  648

Prevention 650

Travelers’ Diarrhea . 650

28 Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Vibrio, Yersinia, and Campylobacter 
Species  . 657

Vibriosis (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). 657

Growth Conditions657

Virulence Properties  . 659

Gastroenteritis Syndrome and Vehicle Foods660

Other Vibrios . 661

Vibrio cholerae661

Vibrio vulnificus663

Vibrio alginolyticus and V. hollisae664

Yersiniosis (Yersinia enterocolitica). 664

Growth Requirements 665

Distribution  666

Serovars and Biovars . 666

Virulence Factors. 667

Incidence of Y. enterocolitica in Foods668

Gastroenteritis Syndrome and Incidence  . 668

Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter jejuni)  668

Distribution  669

Virulence Properties  . 670

Enteritis Syndrome and Prevalence671

Prevention 671

29 Foodborne Animal Parasites. 679

Protozoa679

Giardiasis680

Amebiasis  . 682

Toxoplasmosis683

Distribution of T. gondii. 684

Sarcocystosis 686

Cryptosporidiosis. 687

Cyclosporiasis  . 689

Flatworms. 690


Fascioliasis  691

Fasciolopsiasis691

Paragonimiasis692

Clonorchiasis. 692

Diphyllobothriasis 693

Cysticercosis/Taeniasis 695

Roundworms  . 696

Trichinosis . 697

Anisakiasis  702

30 Mycotoxins 709

Aflatoxins. 709

Requirements for Growth and Toxin Production 710

Production and Occurrence in Foods  711

Relative Toxicity and Mode of Action 713

Degradation  714

Alternaria Toxins  715

Citrinin715

Ochratoxins 716

Patulin. 716

Penicillic Acid  717

Sterigmatocystin. 717

Fumonisins718

Growth and Production  718

Prevalence in Corn and Feeds719

Physical/Chemical Properties of FB1 and FB2719

Pathology 720

Sambutoxin 721

Zearalenone 722

Control of Production 722

31 Viruses and Some Other Proven and Suspected Foodborne Biohazards 727

Viruses727

Incidence in Foods and the Environment  . 728

Destruction in Foods . 728

Hepatitis A Virus . 729


Noroviruses 730

Rotaviruses  731

Bacteria732

Enterobacter sakazakii  732

Histamine-Associated (Scombroid) Poisoning732

Prion Diseases 737

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)  737

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Diseases (CJD, vCJD) . 738

Chronic wasting disease (CWD)  739

Toxigenic Phytoplanktons. 739

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning 739

Ciguatera Poisoning  . 740

Domoic Acid  740

Appendix  747

Index 751

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