Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology

Diagnostic Microbiology
 
Author:
Connie R. Mahon & Donald C. Lehman
Release at: 2019
Pages: 2757
Edition:
Sixth Edition
File Size: 52 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English


Content of Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology



Part I Introduction to Clinical Microbiology

Chapter 1 Bacterial Cell Structure, Physiology, Metabolism, and Genetics
Significance

Overview of the Microbial World
Classification/Taxonomy
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Bacterial Morphology
Microbial Growth and Nutrition
Bacterial Biochemistry and Metabolism
Bacterial Genetics
Bibliography

Chapter 2 Host-Parasite Interaction
Origin of Microbial Biota

Composition of Microbial Biota at Different Body Sites
Role of the Microbial Biota in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease
Role of the Microbial Biota in the Host Defense Against Infectious Disease
Microbial Factors Contributing to Pathogenesis and Virulence
Host Resistance Factors
Mechanisms by Which Microbes May Overcome Host Defenses
Bibliography

Chapter 3 The Laboratory Role in Infection Control

General Concepts in Infection Prevention and Control Practice
Outbreak Investigation
Education
Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens
Bibliography

Chapter 4 Control of Microorganisms

Disinfection and Sterilization
Sterilization Versus Disinfection
Factors That Influence the Degree of Killing
Methods of Disinfection and Sterilization
Disinfectants Versus Antiseptics
Environmental Protection Agency Regulations on Chemical Surface Disinfectants
Food and Drug Administration Regulations on Chemical Skin Antiseptics
Microbiology Safety
General Laboratory Safety
Bioterrorism and the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory
Bibliography

Chapter 5 Performance Improvement in the Microbiology Laboratory

General Guidelines for Establishing Quality Control
Performance Improvement
Evaluating and Interpreting Diagnostic Laboratory Tests
Analytic Analysis of Tests
Clinical Analysis of Tests
Operational Analysis of Tests
Choosing a Laboratory Method
Test Validation
Bibliography
Chapter 6 Specimen Collection and Processing
Basic Principles of Specimen Collection
Preservation, Storage, and Transport of Specimens
Specimen Receipt and Processing
Culture Workup
Communication of Laboratory Findings
Bibliography

Chapter 7 Microscopic Examination of Materials From Infected Sites

Preparation of Samples
Stains
Microscopes
Terminology for Direct Examinations
Examination of Prepared Material
Grading or Classifying Materials
Reports of Direct Examinations
Initiation of Special Handling for Unsuspected or Special Pathogens
Quality Control in Direct Microscopic Interpretations
Examples of Sample Observations and Reports
Bibliography
Direct Examination Showing Local and Contaminating Materials
Direct Examination in Common Bacterial Infections
Direct Examination in Gram-Positive Bacillary Infections
Direct Examination in Uncommon Gram-Positive Bacilli
Direct Examination in Gram-Positive Bacilli with Filaments and Branches
Direct Examination in Selected Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Direct Examination in Selected Gram-Negative Bacillary Infections
Direct Examination in Polymicrobial Infections
Direct Examination in Fungal Infections
Direct Examination in Parasitic Infections
Direct Examination in Viral Infections

Chapter 8 Use of Colony Morphology for the Presumptive Identification of
Microorganisms

Importance of Colony Morphology as a Diagnostic Tool
Initial Observation and Interpretation of Cultures
Gross Colony Characteristics Used to Differentiate and Identify Presumptively Microorganisms
Colonies with Multiple Characteristics
Growth of Microorganisms in Liquid Media
Bibliography

Chapter 9 Biochemical Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria

Carbohydrate Utilization
Glucose Metabolism and Its Metabolic Products
Amino Acid Utilization
Miscellaneous Tests
Manual Multitest Systems
Rapid and Automated Identification Systems
Bibliography

Chapter 10 Immunodiagnosis of Infectious Diseases

Antibodies in Serologic Testing
Antigen Detection
Principles of Immunologic Assays
Use of Serologic Testing in Specific Diseases
Direct Antigen Detection Assays
Bibliography

Chapter 11 Applications of Molecular Diagnostics

Nucleic Acid Hybridization Techniques
Nucleic Acid Amplification Procedures
Strain Typing and Identification
Future of Molecular Diagnostics Testing in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory
Nanomedicine
Bibliography

Chapter 12 Antibacterial Mechanisms of Action and Bacterial Resistance

Mechanisms
Antimicrobial Targets and Mechanisms of Action
Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance
β-Lactamase Inhibitors
Dissemination of Resistance Determinants
Nanotechnology to Deliver Therapeutic Agents
Bibliography

Chapter 13 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

Procedures in Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
Reasons and Indications for Performing Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests
Selecting Antimicrobial Agents for Testing and Reporting
Traditional Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Methods
Automated Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Methods
Interpretation of In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Results
Methods of Detecting Antimicrobial-Inactivating Enzymes
Quality Control of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests
Selecting an Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Method
Susceptibility Testing Challenges
Special Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests
Minimum Bactericidal Concentration Test
Time-Kill Assays
Synergy Tests
Serum Bactericidal Test
Molecular Probes for Identifying Determinants of Antimicrobial Resistance
Measurement of Antimicrobial Agents in Serum and Body Fluids
Bibliography

Part II Laboratory Identification of Significant Isolates

Chapter 14 Staphylococci

General Characteristics
Clinically Significant Species
Laboratory Diagnosis
Antimicrobial Susceptibility
Bibliography

Chapter 15 Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Other Catalase-Negative, Gram Positive Cocci

General Characteristics
Clinically Significant Streptococci and Streptococcus-Like Organisms
Laboratory Diagnosis
Bibliography
Chapter 16 Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli
Non–Spore-Forming, Nonbranching, Catalase-Positive Bacilli
Non–Spore-Forming, Nonbranching, Catalase-Negative Bacilli
Non–Spore-Forming, Branching, Aerobic Actinomycetes
Spore-Forming, Nonbranching, Catalase-Positive Bacilli
Bibliography

Chapter 17 Neisseria Species and Moraxella catarrhalis

General Characteristics
Pathogenic Neisseria Species
Commensal Neisseria Species
Bibliography

Chapter 18 Haemophilus, HACEK, Legionella, and Other Fastidious Gram 
Negative Bacilli

Chapter Outline

Objectives
Key Terms
Haemophilus
HACEK Group
Capnocytophaga
Pasteurella
Brucella
Francisella
Bibliography
Chapter Outline
Objectives
Key Terms
Legionella
Laboratory Diagnosis
Bordetella
Bibliography

Chapter 19 Enterobacteriaceae

General Characteristics

Opportunistic Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae and Associated Infections

Primary Intestinal Pathogens of the Family Enterobacteriaceae
Other Genera of the Family Enterobacteriaceae
Laboratory Diagnosis of Enterobacteriaceae
Bibliography

Chapter 20 Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Campylobacter Species


Vibrio

Aeromonas
Campylobacter and Campylobacter-Like Species

Bibliography

Chapter 21 Nonfermenting and Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Bacilli


General Characteristics of Nonfermenters

Clinically Significant Nonfermentative, Gram-Negative Bacilli
Less Commonly Encountered Nonfermentative, Gram-Negative Bacilli
Bibliography

Chapter 22 Anaerobes of Clinical Importance


Important Concepts in Anaerobic Bacteriology

Frequently Encountered Anaerobes and Their Associated Diseases
Specimen Selection, Collection, Transport, and Processing
Procedures for Identifying Anaerobic Isolates
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
Treatment of Anaerobe-Associated Diseases
Bibliography

Chapter 23 The Spirochetes


Leptospires

Borreliae
Treponemes
Bibliography

Chapter 24 Chlamydia, Rickettsia, and Similar Organisms


Chlamydiaceae

Rickettsiaceae and Similar Organisms
Bibliography

Chapter 25 Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma


General Characteristics

Clinical Infections
Laboratory Diagnosis
Antimicrobial Susceptibility
Interpretation of Laboratory Results

Bibliography

Chapter 26 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria


General Characteristics

Clinical Significance of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex
Clinical Significance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
Mycobacterium leprae
Isolation and Identification of Mycobacteria
Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Immunodiagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Bibliography

Chapter 27 Medically Significant Fungi

General Characteristics

Taxonomy

Mycoses
Clinically Significant Species
Laboratory Diagnosis of Fungi
Immunodiagnosis of Fungal Disease
Antifungal Susceptibility
Bibliography

Chapter 28 Diagnostic Parasitology

General Concepts in Parasitology 

Laboratory Methods

Medically Important Parasitic Agents
Bibliography

Chapter 29 Clinical Virology

Characteristics of Viruses

Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections

Double-Stranded DNA Viruses
Single-Stranded DNA Viruses
Double-Stranded RNA Viruses
Single-Stranded RNA Viruses

Hepatitis Viruses
Prions
Antiviral Therapy
Bibliography

Chapter 30 Agents of Bioterror and Forensic Microbiology


Laboratory Response Network

General Characteristics of Biological Threat Agents
Biosafety
Biosafety Levels
Agents of Bioterror
Other Biological Agents and Toxins
Pandemic Preparedness and Bioterrorism Readiness
Concluding Thoughts
Forensic Microbiology
Bibliography

Chapter 31 Biofilms Microbial Biofilms Defined


Architecture of Biofilms

Biofilm Properties
Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
Diseases Associated with Biofilms
Laboratory Consequences Associated with Biofilms
Detection of Biofilms
Potential Interventions
Bibliography

Part III Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: An Organ System Approach to Diagnostic Microbiology


Chapter 32 Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections


General Concepts of Infectious Diseases of The Respiratory Tract


Host Risk Factors
Virulence Factors of Pathogenic Organisms
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory Tract Infections in the Immunocompromised Host
Bioterrorism and Respiratory Infections
References

Chapter 33 Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

Anatomy of the Skin

Localized Bacterial and Fungal Skin Infections

Dermatologic Manifestations of Systemic Bacterial and Fungal Infections
Viral Infections
Parasitic Infections
Immune- or Toxin-Mediated Dermatologic Manifestations of Infectious Agents
Laboratory Diagnosis
Bibliography

Chapter 34 Gastrointestinal Infections and Food Poisoning


Evaluating Gastrointestinal Infections and Food Poisoning

Anatomic Considerations
Approach to Diagnosis of the Patient with Diarrhea
Clinical Presentation and Pathogenic Mechanisms of Acute Diarrhea
Common Viral, Bacterial, and Parasitic Pathogens
Diarrhea in Special Circumstances
Laboratory Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Pathogens
Treatment and Prevention of Diarrhea
Bibliography

Chapter 35 Infections of the Central Nervous System


General Concepts Related to Infections of the Central Nervous System

Central Nervous System Infections
Laboratory Diagnosis

Bibliography

Chapter 36 Bacteremia and Sepsis

General Concepts Related to Bacteremic 

Infections

Epidemiology
Causes
Pathogenesis
Clinical Aspects of Bacteremia
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 37 Urinary Tract Infections

Introduction

The Urinary System

Epidemiology and Risk Factors
Clinical Signs and Symptoms
Causes of Urinary Tract Infections
Laboratory Diagnosis
Microbial Detection
Interpretation of Results
Susceptibility Reporting
Bibliography

Chapter 38 Genital Infections and Sexually Transmitted Infections


Urethritis

Cervicitis
Vulvovaginitis
Genital Ulcer Disease
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Bibliography


Chapter 39 Infections in Special Populations

Health Care–Associated Infections

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Malignancy
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Complement Deficiency
Burns
Organ Transplantation
Postsplenectomy Sepsis
Cystic Fibrosis
Diabetes
Aging
Pregnancy, the Fetus, and the Neonate
Bibliography

Chapter 40 Zoonotic Diseases


Key Terms

Transmission by Scratches and Bites From Domestic or Wild Animals
Transmission by Direct Contact or Inhalation
Transmission by Arthropod Vectors
Emerging Zoonoses
Bibliography

Chapter 41 Ocular Infections


General Concepts Related to Ocular Infections

Infections of the Conjunctivae
Infections of the Eyelids
Infections of the Cornea
Infections of the Sclera and Episclera
Infections of the Orbit
Infections of the Lacrimal Apparatus
Infections of the Intraocular Chambers
Biofilm-Centered Ocular Infections
Laboratory Diagnosis of Ocular Infections

Bibliography

Appendix A Selected Bacteriologic Culture Media


Acetate Agar

Alkaline Peptone Water
American Trudeau Society Medium
Bacteroides Bile Esculin Agar
Bile Esculin Agar
Bismuth Sulfite Agar
Blood Agar, Anaerobic, Brucella Base, Wadsworth
Blood Agar, Anaerobic, CDC
Blood Agar, Anaerobic, Laked, With Kanamycin, Vancomycin, and Vitamin K
Blood Agar, Anaerobic, With Kanamycin and Vancomycin
Blood Agar, Rabbit
Blood Agar, Sheep
Blood Phenylethyl Alcohol Agar, Anaerobic, CDC
Bordet-Gengou Blood Agar
Brain-Heart Infusion Broth
Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract Agar
Burkholderia cepacia Agar
Burkholderia cepacia Selective Agar
Campylobacter Blood Agar (Campy-BA)
Campylobacter Charcoal Differential Agar
Campylobacter Thioglycolate Broth
Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin
Cetrimide Agar
Chocolate Agar
CHROMagars
Citrate Agar, Simmons
Columbia Agar With and Without 5% Sheep Blood
Cooked Meat (Chopped Meat Glucose) Medium
Cycloserine Cefoxitin Fructose Agar
Cystine Tryptic Agar With Sugar
Decarboxylase Test Medium (Moeller)

Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) Test Agar
Dilute Gelatin Medium (0.4%)
Egg Yolk Agar, CDC Formulation
Eosin–Methylene Blue Agar
Esculin Agar
Fletcher Semisolid Medium for Leptospira
Gelatin Medium (Nutrient)
Gram-Negative Broth
Haemophilus Test Medium
Hektoen Enteric Agar
Hippurate Broth
Hydrogen Sulfide, Lead Acetate
Kligler Iron Agar
Lim Broth
Loeffler Coagulated Serum Slant
Löwenstein-Jensen Medium
Lysine Iron Agar
MacConkey Agar
MacConkey Sorbitol Agar
Malonate Broth
Mannitol Salt Agar
Methyl Red Voges-Proskauer Medium
Middlebrook 7H10 and 7H11 Agars
Mitchison 7H11 Selective Agar
Modified Thayer-Martin Agar
Motility Test Medium
Mueller-Hinton Agar
Mueller-Hinton Agar With 2% NaCl
Mueller-Hinton Agar With 4% NaCl and 6 µg Oxacillin
New York City Medium
Nitrate Reduction Broth
Nutrient Agar
Oxidative-Fermentative Medium (Hugh and Leifson Formulation)
Oxidative-Fermentative Polymyxin B–Bacitracin-Lactose Agar

Peptone–Yeast Extract–Glucose Broth
Phenylalanine Deaminase Agar
Phenylethyl Alcohol Agar
Potassium Tellurite Blood Agar
PPLO Agar
Regan-Lowe Medium
Salmonella-Shigella Agar
Schaedler Agar
Selenite Broth
Sodium Chloride Broth, 6.5%
SP-4 Broth and SP-4 Agar
Streptococcus-Selective Agar
Tetrathionate Broth
Thioglycollate Broth, Basal and Enriched
Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose Agar
Tinsdale Agar
Todd-Hewitt Broth With Gentamicin and Nalidixic Acid
Triple Sugar Iron Agar
Trypticase Soy Agar
Trypticase Soy Broth
Tryptophan Broth, 1%
Urea Agar and Broth
Vaginalis Agar
Xylose-Lysine-Desoxycholate Agar
Bibliography

Appendix B Selected Mycology Media, Fluids, and Stains

Fungal Media
Fungal Mounting Fluid
Fungal Stains
Bibliography
Appendix C Selected Procedures
Appendix D Answers to Learning Assessment Questions

Glossary

Index


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