Developmental Biology 11th Edition (PDF)

Developmental Biology

Author:
Scott F. Gilbert & Michael J. F. Barresi
Release at: 2016
Pages: 940
Edition:
11th Edition
File Size: 70 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English




Description of Developmental Biology 11th Edition (PDF)

This Developmental Biology Book 11th edition written by Gilbert & Barresi is the best book for developmental science study available in (PDF) download. It is due to talent of Chris Small and his production staff; to Jefferson Johnson and his artistic mastery of Adobe InDesign; to the expertise of the artists at Dragonfly Media Graphics; and to photo editor extraordinaire David McIntyre, who manages to find incredible photographs to complement the many wonderful images my colleagues have so generously supplied for each edition.

I have been blessed with remarkable students who have never been shy about asking me questions. Even today they continue to send me “Did you see this?” emails that make sure I’m keeping current. I also thank all those people who continue to send me emails of encouragement or who come up to me at meetings to pass on good words about the book and provide me with even more information. This book is and always has been a community endeavor.

In the Ninth and Tenth editions of Developmental Biology, we speculated that the study of animal development was undergoing metamorphosis. The field has not reached the climax phase yet, but certain differences between the previous edition and one in your hands (or on your screen) are definitely apparent. The first can be seen on the cover. Developmental biology has been charged with a huge undertaking—nothing less than discovering the anatomical and genetic bases of neural organization and behaviors. This task was part of developmental biology when it was reformulated in the early 1900s (especially by the American C. O. Whitman), but it had dropped out of the portfolio as being “too complicated” and not amenable for study. Today, however, developmental neurobiology is an increasingly large part of developmental biology. Among many other things, developmental biology is becoming necessary for cognitive science.




Content of Developmental Biology 11th Edition (PDF)


PART I Patterns and Processes of Becoming: A Framework for Understanding Animal Development

Chapter 1: Making New Bodies: Mechanisms of Developmental Organization

  • “How Are You?” The Questions of Developmental Biology
  • The Cycle of Life
  • An Example: A Frog’s Life
  • Gametogenesis and fertilization
  • Cleavage and gastrulation
  • Organogenesis
  • Metamorphosis and gametogenesis
  • Comparative Embryology
  • Epigenesis and preformationism
  • An Overview of Early Development
  • Patterns of cleavage
  • Gastrulation: “The most important time in your life”
  • Naming the parts: The primary germ layers and early organs
  • The four principles of Karl Ernst von Baer
  • Keeping Track of Moving Cells: Fate Maps and Cell Lineages
  • Fate maps
  • Direct observation of living embryos
  • Dye marking
  • Genetic labeling
  • Transgenic DNA chimeras
  • Evolutionary Embryology
  • Embryonic homologies
  • Medical Embryology and Teratology
  • Genetic malformations and syndromes
  • Disruptions and teratogens
  • CHAPTER 2: Specifying Identity: Mechanisms of Developmental Patterning

  • Levels of Commitment
  • Cell differentiation
  • Commitment
  • Autonomous Specification
  • Cytoplasmic determinants and autonomous specification in the tunicate
  • Conditional Specification
  • Cell position matters: Conditional specification in the sea urchin embryo
  • Syncytial Specification
  • Opposing axial gradients define position
  • A Rainbow of Cell Identities
  • CHAPTER 3: Differential Gene Expression: Mechanisms of Cell Differentiation

  • Defining Differential Gene Expression
  • Quick Primer on the Central Dogma
  • Evidence for Genomic Equivalence
  • Modulating Access to Genes
  • Loosening and tightening chromatin: Histones as gatekeepers
  • Maintaining a memory of methylation
  • Anatomy of the Gene
  • Exons and introns
  • Cis-regulatory elements: The on, off, and dimmer switches of a gene
  • Transcription factor function
  • The Gene Regulatory Network: Defining an Individual Cell
  • Mechanisms of Differential Gene Transcription
  • Differentiated proteins from high and low CpG-content promoters
  • DNA methylation, another key on/off switch of transcription
  • Differential RNA Processing
  • Creating families of proteins through differential nRNA splicing
  • Splicing enhancers and recognition factors
  • Control of Gene Expression at the Level of Translation
  • Differential mRNA longevity
  • Stored oocyte mRNAs: Selective inhibition of mRNA translation
  • Ribosomal selectivity: Selective activation of mRNA translation
  • microRNAs: Specific regulation of mRNA translation and transcription
  • Control of RNA expression by cytoplasmic localization
  • Posttranslational Regulation of Gene Expression
  • The Basic Tools of Developmental Genetics
  • Characterizing gene expression
  • Testing Gene Function
  • CHAPTER 4: Cell-to-Cell Communication: Mechanisms of Morphogenesis

  • A Primer on Cell-to-Cell Communication
  • Adhesion and Sorting: Juxtacrine Signaling and the Physics of Morphogenesis
  • Differential cell affinity
  • The thermodynamic model of cell interactions
  • Cadherins and cell adhesion
  • The Extracellular Matrix as a Source of Developmental Signals
  • Integrins: Receptors for extracellular matrix molecules
  • The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Cell Signaling
  • Induction and competence
  • Reciprocal induction
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions
  • The insect trachea: Combining inductive signals with cadherin regulation
  • Paracrine Factors: Inducer Molecules
  • Morphogen gradients
  • Signal transduction cascades: The response to inducers
  • Fibroblast growth factors and the RTK pathway
  • FGFs and the JAK-STAT pathway
  • The Hedgehog family
  • The Wnt family
  • The TGF-b superfamily
  • Other paracrine factors
  • The Cell Biology of Paracrine Signaling
  • Focal membrane protrusions as signaling sources
  • Juxtacrine Signaling for Cell Identity
  • The Notch pathway: Juxtaposed ligands and receptors for pattern formation
  • Paracrine and juxtacrine signaling in coordination: Vulval induction in C. elegans
  • Hippo: An integrator of pathways
  • CHAPTER 5: Stem Cells: Their Potential and Their Niches

  • The Stem Cell Concept
  • Division and self-renewal
  • Potency defines a stem cell
  • Stem Cell Regulation
  • Pluripotent Cells in the Embryo
  • Cells of the inner cell mass
  • Mechanisms promoting pluripotency of ICM cells
  • Adult Stem Cell Niches
  • Stem cells fueling germ cell development in Drosophila
  • Adult Neural Stem Cell Niche of the V-SVZ
  • The neural stem cell niche of the V-SVZ
  • Maintaining the NSC pool with cell-to-cell interactions
  • Promoting differentiation in the V-SVZ niche
  • Environmental influences on the NSC niche
  • The Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Niche
  • Clonal renewal in the crypt
  • Regulatory mechanisms in the crypt
  • Stem Cells Fueling the Diverse Cell Lineages in Adult Blood
  • The hematopoietic stem cell niche
  • Regulatory mechanisms in the endosteal niche
  • Regulatory mechanisms in the perivascular niche
  • The Mesenchymal Stem Cell: Supporting a Variety of Adult Tissues
  • Regulation of MSC development
  • Other stem cells supporting adult tissue maintenance and regeneration
  • The Human Model System to Study Development and Disease
  • Pluripotent stem cells in the lab
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells
  • Organoids: Studying human organogenesis in a culture dish
  • Stem Cells: Hope or Hype?
  • PART II Gametogenesis and Fertilization: the Circle of Sex

    CHAPTER 6: Sex Determination and Gametogenesis

  • Chromosomal Sex Determination
  • The Mammalian Pattern of Sex Determination
  • Primary Sex Determination in Mammals
  • The developing gonads
  • Genetic mechanisms of primary sex determination: Making decisions
  • The ovary pathway: Wnt4 and R-spondin1
  • The testis pathway: Sry and Sox9
  • The right time and the right place
  • Secondary Sex Determination in Mammals: Hormonal Regulation of the Sexual Phenotype
  • The genetic analysis of secondary sex determination
  • Chromosomal Sex Determination in Drosophila
  • The Sex-lethal gene
  • Doublesex: The switch gene for sex determination
  • Environmental Sex Determination
  • Mammalian Gametogenesis
  • Meiosis: The intertwining of life cycles
  • Gametogenesis in mammals: Spermatogenesis
  • Gametogenesis in mammals: Oogenesis
  • Coda
  • CHAPTER 7: Fertilization: Beginning a New Organism

  • Structure of the Gametes
  • Sperm
  • The egg
  • Recognition of egg and sperm
  • External Fertilization in Sea Urchins
  • Sperm attraction: Action at a distance
  • The acrosome reaction
  • Recognition of the egg’s extracellular coat
  • Fusion of the egg and sperm cell membranes
  • One egg, one sperm
  • The fast block to polyspermy
  • The slow block to polyspermy
  • Calcium as the initiator of the cortical granule reaction
  • Activation of Egg Metabolism in Sea Urchins
  • Release of intracellular calcium ions
  • Effects of calcium release
  • Fusion of Genetic Material in Sea Urchins
  • Internal Fertilization in Mammals
  • Getting the gametes into the oviduct: Translocation and capacitation
  • In the vicinity of the oocyte: Hyperactivation, thermotaxis, and chemotaxis
  • The acrosome reaction and recognition at the zona pellucida
  • Gamete fusion and the prevention of polyspermy
  • Fusion of genetic material
  • Activation of the mammalian egg
  • Coda
  • PART III Early Development: Cleavage, Gastrulation, and Axis Formation

    CHAPTER 8: Rapid Specification in Snails and Nematodes

  • Developmental Patterns among the Metazoa
  • Basal phyla
  • The triploblastic animals: Protostomes and deuterostomes
  • Early Development in Snails
  • Cleavage in Snail Embryos
  • Maternal regulation of snail cleavage
  • The snail fate map
  • Cell specification and the polar lobe
  • Altering evolution by altering cleavage patterns: An example from a bivalve mollusk
  • Gastrulation in Snails
  • The Nematode C. Elegans
  • Cleavage and Axis Formation in C. elegans
  • Rotational cleavage of the egg
  • Anterior-posterior axis formation
  • Dorsal-ventral and right-left axis formation
  • Control of blastomere identity
  • Gastrulation in C. elegans
  • CHAPTER 9: The Genetics of Axis Specification in Drosophila

  • Early Drosophila Development
  • Fertilization
  • Cleavage
  • The mid-blastula transition
  • Gastrulation
  • The Genetic Mechanisms Patterning the Drosophila Body
  • Segmentation and the Anterior-Posterior Body Plan
  • Anterior-posterior polarity in the oocyte
  • Maternal gradients: Polarity regulation by oocyte cytoplasm
  • The anterior organizing center: The Bicoid and Hunchback gradients
  • The terminal gene group
  • Segmentation Genes
  • Segments and parasegments
  • The gap genes
  • The pair-rule genes
  • The segment polarity genes
  • The Homeotic Selector Genes
  • Generating the Dorsal-Ventral Axis
  • Dorsal-ventral patterning in the oocyte
  • Generating the dorsal-ventral axis within the embryo
  • Establishing a nuclear Dorsal gradient
  • Axes and Organ Primordia: The Cartesian Coordinate Model
  • Coda
  • CHAPTER 10: Sea Urchins and Tunicates: Deuterostome Invertebrates

  • Early Development in Sea Urchins
  • Early cleavage
  • Blastula formation
  • Fate maps and the determination of sea urchin blastomeres
  • Gene regulatory networks and skeletogenic mesenchyme specification
  • Specification of the vegetal cells
  • Sea Urchin Gastrulation
  • Ingression of the skeletogenic mesenchyme
  • Invagination of the archenteron
  • Early Development in Tunicates
  • Cleavage
  • The tunicate fate map
  • Autonomous and conditional specification of tunicate blastomeres
  • CHAPTER 11: Amphibians and Fish

  • Early Amphibian Development
  • Fertilization, Cortical Rotation, and Cleavage
  • Unequal radial holoblastic cleavage
  • The mid-blastula transition: Preparing for gastrulation
  • Amphibian Gastrulation
  • Vegetal rotation and the invagination of the bottle cells
  • Epiboly of the prospective ectoderm
  • Progressive Determination of the Amphibian Axes
  • Specification of the germ layers
  • The dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior axes
  • The Work of Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold
  • Autonomous specification versus inductive interactions
  • Primary embryonic induction
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Amphibian Axis Formation
  • How does the organizer form?
  • Functions of the organizer
  • Induction of neural ectoderm and dorsal mesoderm: BMP inhibitors
  • Regional Specificity of Neural Induction along the Anterior-Posterior Axis
  • The head inducer: Wnt antagonists
  • Trunk patterning: Wnt signals and retinoic acid
  • Specifying the Left-Right Axis
  • Early Zebrafish Development
  • Cleavage
  • Gastrulation and Formation of the Germ Layers
  • Dorsal-ventral axis formation
  • Anterior-posterior axis formation
  • Left-right axis formation
  • CHAPTER 12: Birds and Mammals

  • Early Development in Birds
  • Avian Cleavage
  • Gastrulation of the Avian Embryo
  • The hypoblast
  • The primitive streak
  • Molecular mechanisms of migration through the primitive streak
  • Regression of the primitive streak and epiboly of the ectoderm
  • Axis Specification and the Avian “Organizer”
  • The role of gravity and the PMZ
  • Left-right axis formation
  • Early Development in Mammals
  • Cleavage
  • The unique nature of mammalian cleavage
  • Compaction
  • Trophoblast or ICM? The first decision of the rest of your life
  • Escape from the zona pellucida and implantation
  • Mammalian Gastrulation
  • Modifications for development inside another organism
  • Mammalian Axis Formation
  • The anterior-posterior axis: Two signaling centers
  • Anterior-posterior patterning by FGF and RA gradients
  • Anterior-posterior patterning: The Hox code hypothesis
  • The left-right axis
  • Twins
  • Coda
  • PART IV Building with Ectoderm: the Vertebrate Nervous System and Epidermis

    CHAPTER 13: Neural Tube Formation and Patterning

  • Transforming the Neural Plate into a Tube: The Birth of the Central Nervous System
  • Primary neurulation
  • Secondary neurulation
  • Patterning the Central Nervous System
  • The anterior-posterior axis
  • The dorsal-ventral axis
  • Opposing morphogens
  • Transcriptional cross-repression
  • All Axes Come Together
  • CHAPTER 14: Brain Growth

  • Neuroanatomy of the Developing Central Nervous System
  • The cells of the developing central nervous system
  • Tissues of the developing central nervous system
  • Developmental Mechanisms Regulating Brain Growth
  • Neural stem cell behaviors during division
  • Neurogenesis: Building from the bottom up (or from the inside out)
  • Glia as scaffold for the layering of the cerebellum and neocortex
  • Signaling mechanisms regulating development of the neocortex
  • Development of the Human Brain
  • Fetal neuronal growth rate after birth
  • Hills raise the horizon for learning
  • Genes for neuronal growth
  • High transcriptional activity
  • Teenage brains: Wired and unchained
  • CHAPTER 15: Neural Crest Cells and Axonal Specificity

  • The Neural Crest
  • Regionalization of the Neural Crest
  • Neural Crest: Multipotent Stem Cells?
  • Specification of Neural Crest Cells
  • Neural Crest Cell Migration: Epithelial to Mesenchymal and Beyond
  • Delamination
  • The driving force of contact inhibition
  • Collective migration
  • Migration Pathways of Trunk Neural Crest Cells
  • The ventral pathway
  • The dorsolateral pathway
  • Cranial Neural Crest
  • The “Chase and Run” Model
  • Neural Crest-Derived Head Skeleton
  • Coordination of face and brain growth
  • Cardiac Neural Crest
  • Establishing Axonal Pathways in the Nervous System
  • The Growth Cone: Driver and Engine of Axon Pathfinding
  • “Plus tips” and actin-microtubule interactions
  • Rho, Rho, Rho your actin filaments down the signaling stream
  • Axon Guidance
  • The Intrinsic Navigational Programming of Motor Neurons
  • Cell adhesion: A mechanism to grab the road
  • Local and long-range guidance molecules: The street signs of the embryo
  • Repulsion patterns: Ephrins and semaphorins
  • How Did the Axon Cross the Road?
  • The Travels of Retinal Ganglion Axons
  • Growth of the retinal ganglion axon to the optic nerve
  • Growth of the retinal ganglion axon through the optic chiasm
  • Target Selection: “Are We There Yet?”
  • Chemotactic proteins
  • Target selection by retinal axons: “Seeing is believing”
  • Adhesive specificities in different regions of the optic tectum: Ephrins and Ephs
  • Synapse Formation
  • A Program of Cell Death
  • Activity-dependent neuronal survival
  • Differential survival after innervation: The role of neurotrophins
  • CHAPTER 16: Ectodermal Placodes and the Epidermis

  • Cranial Placodes: The Senses of Our Heads
  • The Dynamics of Optic Development: The Vertebrate Eye
  • Formation of the Eye Field: The Beginnings of the Retina
  • The Lens-Retina Induction Cascade
  • Lens and cornea differentiation
  • Neural retina differentiation
  • The Epidermis and It's Cutaneous Appendages
  • Origin of the Epidermis
  • The Ectodermal Appendages
  • Recombination experiments: The roles of epithelium and mesenchyme
  • Signaling pathways
  • Ectodermal appendage stem cells
  • Coda
  • PART V Building with Mesoderm and Endoderm: Organogenesis

    CHAPTER 17: Paraxial Mesoderm: The Somites and Their Derivatives

  • Cell Types of the Somite
  • Establishing the Paraxial Mesoderm and Cell Fates Along the Anterior-Posterior Axis
  • Specification of the paraxial mesoderm
  • Spatiotemporal collinearity of Hox genes determine identity along the trunk
  • Somitogenesis
  • Axis elongation: A caudal progenitor zone and tissue-to-tissue forces
  • The clock-wavefront model
  • Linking the clock-wavefront to Hox-mediated axial identity and the end of somitogenesis
  • Sclerotome Development
  • Vertebrae formation
  • Tendon formation: The syndetome
  • Formation of the dorsal aorta
  • Dermomyotome Development
  • Determination of the central dermomyotome
  • Determination of the myotome
  • An emerging model of neural crest-regulated myogenesis
  • Osteogenesis: The Development of Bones
  • Endochondral ossification
  • Mechanotransduction and vertebrate bone development
  • Maturation of Muscle
  • Myoblasts and myofibers
  • Satellite cells: Unfused muscle progenitor cells
  • Mechanotransduction in the musculoskeletal system
  • CHAPTER 18: Intermediate and Lateral Plate Mesoderm: Heart, Blood, and Kidneys

  • Intermediate Mesoderm: The Kidney
  • Specification of the Intermediate Mesoderm: Pax8 and Lim1
  • Reciprocal Interactions of Developing Kidney Tissues
  • Mechanisms of reciprocal induction
  • Lateral Plate Mesoderm: Heart and Circulatory System
  • Heart Development
  • A minimalist heart
  • Formation of the heart fields
  • Specification of the cardiogenic mesoderm
  • Migration of the cardiac precursor cells
  • Initial heart cell differentiation
  • Blood Vessel Formation
  • Vasculogenesis: The initial formation of blood vessels
  • Angiogenesis: Sprouting of blood vessels and remodeling of vascular beds
  • Anti-angiogenesis in normal and abnormal development
  • Hematopoiesis: Stem Cells and Long-Lived Progenitor Cells
  • Sites of hematopoiesis
  • The bone marrow HSC niche
  • Hematopoietic inductive microenvironments
  • Coda
  • CHAPTER 19: Development of the Tetrapod Limb

  • Limb Anatomy
  • The Limb Bud
  • Hox Gene Specification of Limb Skeleton Identity
  • From proximal to distal: Hox genes in the limb
  • From fins to fingers: Hox genes and limb evolution
  • Determining What Kind of Limb to Form and Where to Put It
  • Specifying the limb fields
  • Induction of the early limb bud
  • Outgrowth: Generating the Proximal-Distal Axis of the Limb
  • The apical ectodermal ridge
  • Specifying the limb mesoderm: Determining the proximal-distal polarity
  • Turing’s model: A reaction-diffusion mechanism of proximal-distal limb development
  • Specifying the Anterior-Posterior Axis
  • Sonic hedgehog defines a zone of polarizing activity
  • Specifying digit identity by Sonic hedgehog
  • Sonic hedgehog and FGFs: Another positive feedback loop
  • Hox specification of the digits
  • A Turing model for self-organizing digit skeletogenesis
  • Generating the Dorsal-Ventral Axis
  • Cell Death and the Formation of Digits and Joints
  • Sculpting the autopod
  • Forming the joints
  • Continued limb growth: Epiphyseal plates
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptors: Dwarfism
  • Evolution by Altering Limb Signaling Centers
  • CHAPTER 20: The Endoderm: Tubes and Organs for Digestion and Respiration

  • The Pharynx
  • The Digestive Tube and Its Derivatives
  • Specification of the gut tissue
  • Accessory organs: The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder
  • The Respiratory Tube
  • PART VI Postembryonic Development

    CHAPTER 21: Metamorphosis: The Hormonal Reactivation of Development

  • Amphibian Metamorphosis
  • Morphological changes associated with amphibian metamorphosis
  • Hormonal control of amphibian metamorphosis
  • Regionally specific developmental programs
  • Metamorphosis in Insects
  • Imaginal discs
  • Hormonal control of insect metamorphosis
  • The molecular biology of 20-hydroxyecdysone activity
  • Determination of the wing imaginal discs
  • Metamorphosis of the Pluteus Larva
  • CHAPTER 22: Regeneration

  • Many Ways to Rebuild
  • Hydra: Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Morphallaxis, and Epimorphosis
  • Routine cell replacement by three types of stem cells
  • The head activator
  • The head inhibition gradients
  • Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration in Flatworms
  • Salamanders: Epimorphic Limb Regeneration
  • Formation of the apical epidermal cap and regeneration blastema
  • Proliferation of the blastema cells: The requirement for nerves and the apical epidermal cap
  • Luring the Mechanisms of Regeneration from Zebrafish Organs
  • Regeneration in Mammals
  • CHAPTER 23: Aging and Senescence

  • Genes and Aging
  • DNA repair enzymes
  • Aging and the insulin signaling cascade
  • The mTORC1 pathway
  • Chromatin modification
  • Random Epigenetic Drift
  • Stem Cells and Aging
  • Exceptions to the Aging Rule
  • PART VII Development in Wider Contexts

    CHAPTER 24: Development in Health and Disease: Birth Defects, Endocrine Disruptors, and Cancer

  • The Role of Chance
  • Genetic Errors of Human Development
  • The nature of human syndromes
  • Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity
  • Teratogenesis: Environmental Assaults on Animal Development
  • Alcohol as a teratogen
  • Retinoic acid as a teratogen
  • Endocrine Disruptors: The Embryonic Origins of Adult Disease
  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • Bisphenol A (BPA)
  • Atrazine: Endocrine disruption through hormone synthesis
  • Fracking: A potential new source of endocrine disruption
  • Transgenerational Inheritance of Developmental Disorders
  • Cancer as a Disease of Development
  • Developmental therapies for cancer
  • Coda
  • CHAPTER 25: Development and the Environment: Biotic, Abiotic, and Symbiotic Regulation of Development

  • The Environment as a Normal Agent in Producing Phenotypes
  • Diet-induced polyphenisms
  • Predator-induced polyphenisms
  • Temperature as an environmental agent
  • Polyphenic Life Cycles
  • Larval settlement
  • The hard life of spadefoot toads
  • Developmental Symbioses
  • Mechanisms of developmental symbiosis: Getting the partners together
  • The Euprymna-Vibrio symbiosis
  • Obligate developmental mutualism
  • Developmental symbiosis in the mammalian intestine
  • Coda
  • CHAPTER 26: Development and Evolution: Developmental Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change

  • Descent with Modification: Why Animals Are Alike and Different
  • Preconditions for Evolution: The Developmental Structure of the Genome
  • Modularity: Divergence through dissociation
  • Molecular parsimony: Gene duplication and divergence
  • Deep Homology
  • Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change
  • Heterotopy
  • Heterochrony
  • Heterometry
  • Heterotypy
  • Developmental Constraints on Evolution
  • Selectable Epigenetic Variation
  • Genetic assimilation
  • Fixation of environmentally induced phenotypes
  • Coda
  • Glossary

    Index

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