Genetics A Conceptual Approach

Genetics A Conceptual Approach
Benjamin A. Pierce
Release at: 2017
Pages: 2785
Sixth Edition
File Size: 119 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English

Description of Genetics A Conceptual Approach

This Genetics A Conceptual Approach The sixth edition book is now fully supported in SaplingPlus. This comprehensive and robust online teaching and learning platform incorporates online homework with the eBook, all instructor and student resources, and powerful grade book functionality. Students benefit from just-in-time hints and feedback specific to their misconceptions to develop their problem-solving skills, while instructors benefit from automatically graded homework and robust grade book diagnostics.

Active learning components One of my main goals for this new edition is to provide better resources for active learning. In this edition, I have added Think-Pair-Share questions, which require students to work and learn, in groups. These questions not only focus on the genetics topics covered in the chapter, but also tie them to genetics in medicine, agriculture, and other aspects of human society. An online instructor guide provides resources for instructors leading the in-class discussion.

Content of Genetics A Conceptual Approach

Chapter 1 Introduction to Genetics
Albinism in the Hopis
1.1 Genetics Is Important to Us Individually, to Society, and to the
Study of Biology
The Role of Genetics in Biology
Genetic Diversity and Evolution
DNA in the Biosphere
Divisions of Genetics
Model Genetic Organisms
1.2 Humans Have Been Using Genetic Techniques for Thousands of
The Early Use and Understanding of Heredity
The Rise of the Science of Genetics
The Cutting Edge of Genetics
1.3 A Few Fundamental Concepts Are Important for the Start of
Our Journey into Genetics

Chapter 2 Chromosomes and Cellular Reproduction
The Blind Men’s Riddle
2.1 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Differ in a Number of Genetic
2.2 Cell Reproduction Requires the Copying of the Genetic
Material, Separation of the Copies, and Cell Division
Prokaryotic Cell Reproduction by Binary Fission
Eukaryotic Cell Reproduction
The Cell Cycle and Mitosis
Genetic Consequences of the Cell Cycle
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Counting Chromosomes and DNA Molecules
2.3 Sexual Reproduction Produces Genetic Variation Through the
Process of Meiosis
Sources of Genetic Variation in Meiosis
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Mitosis and Meiosis Compared
The Separation of Sister Chromatids and Homologous Chromosomes
Meiosis in the Life Cycles of Animals and Plants

Chapter 3 Basic Principles of Heredity
The Genetics of Blond Hair in the South Pacific
3.1 Gregor Mendel Discovered the Basic Principles of Heredity
Mendel’s Success
Genetic Terminology
3.2 Monohybrid Crosses Reveal the Principle of Segregation and the
Concept of Dominance
What Monohybrid Crosses Reveal
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Relating Genetic Crosses to Meiosis
The Molecular Nature of Alleles
Predicting the Outcomes of Genetic Crosses
The Testcross
Genetic Symbols
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Ratios in Simple Crosses
3.3 Dihybrid Crosses Reveal the Principle of Independent
Dihybrid Crosses
The Principle of Independent Assortment
Relating the Principle of Independent Assortment to Meiosis
Applying Probability and the Branch Diagram to Dihybrid Crosses
The Dihybrid Testcross
3.4 Observed Ratios of Progeny May Deviate from Expected Ratios
by Chance
The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test

Chapter 4 Sex Determination and Sex-Linked Characteristics
The Sex of a Dragon
4.1 Sex Is Determined by a Number of Different Mechanisms
Chromosomal Sex-Determining Systems
Genic Sex Determination
Environmental Sex Determination
Sex Determination in Drosophila melanogaster
Sex Determination in Humans
4.2 Sex-Linked Characteristics Are Determined by Genes on the Sex
X-Linked White Eyes in Drosophila
Nondisjunction and the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
X-Linked Color Blindness in Humans
Symbols for X-Linked Genes
Z-Linked Characteristics
Y-Linked Characteristics
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Recognizing Sex-Linked inheritance
4.3 Dosage Compensation Equalizes the Amount of Protein
Produced by X-Linked and Autosomal Genes in Some Animals
The Lyon Hypothesis
Mechanism of Random X Inactivation

Chapter 5 Extensions and Modifications of Basic Principles
The Odd Genetics of Left-Handed Snails
5.1 Additional Factors at a Single Locus Can Affect the Results of
Genetic Crosses
Types of Dominance
Penetrance and Expressivity
Lethal Alleles
Multiple Alleles
5.2 Gene Interaction Takes Place When Genes at Multiple Loci
Determine a Single Phenotype
Gene Interaction That Produces Novel Phenotypes
Gene Interaction with Epistasis
CONNECTING CONCEPTS interpreting Phenotypic Ratios Produced by Gene
Complementation: Determining Whether Mutations Are at the Same
Locus or at Different Loci
The Complex Genetics of Coat Color in Dogs
5.3 Sex Influences the Inheritance and Expression of Genes in a
Variety of Ways
Sex-Influenced and Sex-Limited Characteristics
Cytoplasmic Inheritance
Genetic Maternal Effect
Genomic Imprinting
5.4 Anticipation Is the Stronger or Earlier Expression of Traits in
Succeeding Generations
5.5 The Expression of a Genotype May Be Influenced by
Environmental Effects
Environmental Effects on the Phenotype
The Inheritance of Continuous Characteristics

Chapter 6 Pedigree Analysis, Applications, and Genetic Testing
The Mystery of the Missing Fingerprints
6.1 The Study of Genetics in Humans Is Constrained by Special
Features of Human Biology and Culture
6.2 Geneticists Often Use Pedigrees To Study the Inheritance of
Characteristics in Humans
Symbols Used in Pedigrees
Analysis of Pedigrees
Autosomal Recessive Traits
Autosomal Dominant Traits
X-Linked Recessive Traits
X-Linked Dominant Traits
Y-Linked Traits
Genetic Mosaicism
6.3 Studying Twins and Adoptions Can Help Us Assess the
Importance of Genes and Environment
Types of Twins
Concordance in Twins
A Twin Study of Asthma
Adoption Studies
6.4 Genetic Counseling and Genetic Testing Provide Information to
Those Concerned about Genetic Diseases and Traits
Genetic Counseling
Genetic Testing
Interpreting Genetic Tests
Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing
Genetic Discrimination and Privacy

Chapter 7 Linkage, Recombination, and Eukaryotic Gene Mapping
Linked Genes and Bald Heads
7.1 Linked Genes Do Not Assort Independently
7.2 Linked Genes Segregate Together While Crossing Over
Produces Recombination Between Them
Notation for Crosses with Linkage
Complete Linkage Compared with Independent Assortment
Crossing Over Between Linked Genes
Calculating Recombination Frequency
Coupling and Repulsion
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Relating Independent Assortment, Linkage, and
Crossing Over
Evidence for the Physical Basis of Recombination
Predicting the Outcomes of Crosses with Linked Genes
Testing for Independent Assortment
Gene Mapping with Recombination Frequencies
Constructing a Genetic Map with a Two-Point Testcross
7.3 A Three-Point Testcross Can Be Used to Map Three Linked
Constructing a Genetic Map with a Three-Point Testcross
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Stepping Through the Three-Point Cross
Effects of Multiple Crossovers
Mapping Human Genes
Mapping with Molecular Markers
Locating Genes with Genome-Wide Association Studies
7.4 Physical-Mapping Methods Are Used to Determine the Physical
Positions of Genes on Particular Chromosomes
Somatic-Cell Hybridization
Deletion Mapping
Physical Chromosome Mapping Through Molecular Analysis
7.5 Recombination Rates Exhibit Extensive Variation

Chapter 8 Chromosome Variation
Building a Better Banana
8.1 Chromosome Mutations Include Rearrangements, Aneuploidy,
and Polyploidy
Chromosome Morphology
Types of Chromosome Mutations
8.2 Chromosome Rearrangements Alter Chromosome Structure
Fragile Sites
Copy-Number Variations
8.3 Aneuploidy Is an Increase or Decrease in the Number of
Individual Chromosomes
Types of Aneuploidy
Effects of Aneuploidy
Aneuploidy in Humans
Uniparental Disomy
Genetic Mosaicism
8.4 Polyploidy Is the Presence of More Than Two Sets of
The Significance of Polyploidy

Chapter 9 Bacterial and Viral Genetic Systems
The Genetics of Medieval Leprosy
9.1 Bacteria and Viruses Have Important Roles in Human Society
and the World Ecosystem
Life in a Bacterial World
Bacterial Diversity
9.2 Genetic Analysis of Bacteria Requires Special Methods
Techniques for the Study of Bacteria
The Bacterial Genome
9.3 Bacteria Exchange Genes Through Conjugation,
Transformation, and Transduction
Natural Gene Transfer and Antibiotic Resistance
Transformation in Bacteria
Bacterial Genome Sequences
Horizontal Gene Transfer
Bacterial Defense Mechanisms
9.4 Viruses Are Simple Replicating Systems Amenable to Genetic
Techniques for the Study of Bacteriophages
Transduction: Using Phages To Map Bacterial Genes
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Three Methods for Mapping Bacterial Genes
Gene Mapping in Phages
Plant and Animal Viruses
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS

Chapter 10 DNA: The Chemical Nature of the Gene
Arctic Treks and Ancient DNA
10.1 Genetic Material Possesses Several Key Characteristics
10.2 All Genetic Information Is Encoded in the Structure of DNA or
Early Studies of DNA
DNA As the Source of Genetic Information
Watson and Crick’s Discovery of the Three-Dimensional Structure
of DNA
RNA As Genetic Material
10.3 DNA Consists of Two Complementary and Antiparallel
Nucleotide Strands That Form a Double Helix
The Primary Structure of DNA
Secondary Structures of DNA
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Genetic Implications of DNA Structure
10.4 Special Structures Can Form in DNA and RNA

Chapter 11 Chromosome Structure and Organelle DNA
Telomeres and Childhood Adversity
11.1 Large Amounts of DNA Are Packed into a Cell
The Bacterial Chromosome
Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Changes in Chromatin Structure
11.2 Eukaryotic Chromosomes Possess Centromeres and Telomeres
Centromere Structure
Telomere Structure
11.3 Eukaryotic DNA Contains Several Classes of Sequence
The Denaturation and Renaturation of DNA
Types of DNA Sequences in Eukaryotes
Organization of Genetic Information in Eukaryotes
11.4 Organelle DNA Has Unique Characteristics
Mitochondrion and Chloroplast Structure
The Endosymbiotic Theory
Uniparental Inheritance of Organelle-Encoded Traits
The Mitochondrial Genome
The Evolution of Mitochondrial DNA
Damage to Mitochondrial DNA Associated with Aging
Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy
The Chloroplast Genome
Movement of Genetic Information Between Nuclear, Mitochondrial,
and Chloroplast Genomes

Chapter 12 DNA Replication and Recombination
Topoisomerase, Replication, and Cancer
12.1 Genetic Information Must Be Accurately Copied Every Time a
Cell Divides
12.2 All DNA Replication Takes Place in a Semiconservative
Meselson and Stahl’s Experiment
Modes of Replication
Requirements of Replication
Direction of Replication
CONNECTING CONCEPTS The Direction of Synthesis in Different Modes of
12.3 Bacterial Replication Requires a Large Number of Enzymes
and Proteins
The Fidelity of DNA Replication
CONNECTING CONCEPTS The Basic Rules of Replication
12.4 Eukaryotic DNA Replication Is Similar to Bacterial Replication
but Differs in Several Aspects
Eukaryotic Origins of Replication
DNA Synthesis and the Cell Cycle
The Licensing of DNA Replication
Eukaryotic DNA Polymerases
Nucleosome Assembly
The Location of Replication Within the Nucleus
Replication at the Ends of Chromosomes
Replication in Archaea
12.5 Recombination Takes Place Through the Alignment, Breakage,
and Repair of DNA Strands
Models of Recombination
Enzymes Required for Recombination
Gene Conversion

Chapter 13 Transcription
Death Cap Poisoning
13.1 RNA, Consisting of a Single Strand of Ribonucleotides,
Participates in a Variety of Cellular Functions
An Early RNA World
The Structure of RNA
Classes of RNA
13.2 Transcription Is the Synthesis of an RNA Molecule from a
DNA Template
The Template
The Substrate for Transcription
The Transcription Apparatus
13.3 Bacterial Transcription Consists of Initiation, Elongation, and
CONNECTING CONCEPTS The Basic Rules of Transcription
13.4 Eukaryotic Transcription Is Similar to Bacterial Transcription
but Has Some Important Differences
Transcription and Nucleosome Structure
13.5 Transcription in Archaea Is More Similar to Transcription in
Eukaryotes Than to Transcription in Bacteria

Chapter 14 RNA Molecules and RNA Processing
A Royal Disease
14.1 Many Genes Have Complex Structures
Gene Organization
The Concept of the Gene Revisited
14.2 Messenger RNAs, which Encode Proteins, Are Modified after
Transcription in Eukaryotes
The Structure of Messenger RNA
Pre-mRNA Processing
RNA Splicing
Alternative Processing Pathways
RNA Editing
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Eukaryotic Gene Structure and Pre-mRNA
14.3 Transfer RNAs, which Attach to Amino Acids, Are Modified
after Transcription in Bacterial and Eukaryotic Cells
The Structure of Transfer RNA
Transfer RNA Gene Structure and Processing
14.4 Ribosomal RNA, a Component of the Ribosome, Is Also
Processed after Transcription
The Structure of the Ribosome
Ribosomal RNA Gene Structure and Processing
14.5 Small RNA Molecules Participate in a Variety of Functions
RNA Interference
Small Interfering RNAs and MicroRNAs
Piwi-Interacting RNAs
14.6 Long Noncoding RNAs Regulate Gene Expression

Chapter 15 The Genetic Code and Translation
A Child Without a Spleen
15.1 Many Genes Encode Proteins
The One Gene, One Enzyme Hypothesis
The Structure and Function of Proteins
15.2 The Genetic Code Determines How the Nucleotide Sequence
Specifies the Amino Acid Sequence of a Protein
Breaking the Genetic Code
The Degeneracy of the Code
The Reading Frame and Initiation Codons
Termination Codons
The Universality of the Code
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Characteristics of the Genetic Code
15.3 Amino Acids Are Assembled into a Protein Through
The Binding of Amino Acids to Transfer RNAs
The Initiation of Translation
CONNECTING CONCEPTS A Comparison of Bacterial and Eukaryotic
15.4 Additional Properties of RNA and Ribosomes Affect Protein
The Three-Dimensional Structure of the Ribosome
Messenger RNA Surveillance
Folding and Posttranslational Modifications of Proteins
Translation and Antibiotics

Chapter 16 Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria
Operons and the Noisy Cell
16.1 The Regulation of Gene Expression Is Critical for All
Genes and Regulatory Elements
Levels of Gene Regulation
DNA-Binding Proteins
16.2 Operons Control Transcription in Bacterial Cells
Operon Structure
Negative and Positive Control: Inducible and Repressible Operons
The lac Operon of E. coli
lac Mutations
Positive Control and Catabolite Repression
The trp Operon of E. coli
16.3 Some Operons Regulate Transcription Through Attenuation,
the Premature Termination of Transcription
Attenuation in the trp Operon of E. coli
Why Does Attenuation Take Place in the trp Operon?
16.4 Other Sequences Control the Expression of Some Bacterial
Bacterial Enhancers
Antisense RNA
RNA-Mediated Repression Through Ribozymes

Chapter 17 Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Genetic Differences That Make Us Human
17.1 Eukaryotic Cells and Bacteria Share Many Features of Gene
Regulation but Differ in Several Important Ways
17.2 Changes in Chromatin Structure Affect the Expression of
Eukaryotic Genes
DNase I Hypersensitivity
Chromatin Remodeling
Histone Modification
DNA Methylation
17.3 The Initiation of Transcription Is Regulated by Transcription
Factors and Transcriptional Regulator Proteins
Transcriptional Activators and Coactivators
Transcriptional Repressors
Enhancers and Insulators
Regulation of Transcriptional Stalling and Elongation
Coordinated Gene Regulation
17.4 Some Eukaryotic Genes Are Regulated by RNA Processing and
Gene Regulation Through RNA Splicing
The Degradation of RNA
17.5 RNA Interference Is an Important Mechanism of Gene
Small Interfering RNAs and MicroRNAs
Mechanisms of Gene Regulation by RNA Interference
The Control of Development by RNA Interference
RNA Crosstalk
17.6 The Expression of Some Genes Is Regulated by Processes That
Affect Translation or by Modifications of Proteins
CONNECTING CONCEPTS A Comparison of Bacterial and Eukaryotic Gene

Chapter 18 Gene Mutations and DNA Repair
Lou Gehrig and Expanding Nucleotide Repeats
18.1 Mutations Are Inherited Alterations in the DNA Sequence
The Importance of Mutations
Categories of Mutations
Types of Gene Mutations
Functional Effects of Mutations
Suppressor Mutations
Mutation Rates
18.2 Mutations May Be Caused by a Number of Different Factors
Spontaneous Replication Errors
Spontaneous Chemical Changes
Chemically Induced Mutations
18.3 Mutations Are the Focus of Intense Study by Geneticists
Detecting Mutagens with the Ames Test
Effects of Radiation Exposure in Humans
18.4 Transposable Elements Can Cause Mutations
General Characteristics of Transposable Elements
The Process of Transposition
The Mutagenic Effects of Transposition
Transposable Elements in Bacteria
Transposable Elements in Eukaryotes
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Types of Transposable Elements
Transposable Elements in Genome Evolution
18.5 A Number of Pathways Can Repair DNA
Mismatch Repair
Direct Repair
Base-Excision Repair
Nucleotide-Excision Repair
CONNECTING CONCEPTS The Basic Pathway of DNA Repair
Repair of Double-Strand Breaks
Translesion DNA Polymerases
Genetic Diseases and Faulty DNA Repair

Chapter 19 Molecular Genetic Analysis and Biotechnology
Editing the Genome with CRISPR-Cas9
19.1 Genetics Has Been Transformed by the Development of
Molecular Techniques
Key Innovations in Molecular Genetics
Working at the Molecular Level
19.2 Molecular Techniques Are Used to Cut and Visualize DNA
Recombinant DNA Technology
Restriction Enzymes
Engineered Nucleases
CRISPR-Cas Genome Editing
Separating and Viewing DNA Fragments
Locating DNA Fragments with Probes
19.3 Specific DNA Fragments Can Be Amplified
The Polymerase Chain Reaction
Gene Cloning
19.4 Molecular Techniques Can Be Used to Find Genes of Interest
DNA Libraries
In Situ Hybridization
Positional Cloning
19.5 DNA Sequences Can Be Determined and Analyzed
Dideoxy Sequencing
Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies
DNA Fingerprinting
19.6 Molecular Techniques Are Increasingly Used to Analyze Gene
Forward and Reverse Genetics
Creating Random Mutations
Targeted Mutagenesis
Transgenic Animals
Knockout Mice
Silencing Genes with RNAi
Using RNAi to Treat Human Disease
19.7 Biotechnology Harnesses the Power of Molecular Genetics
Pharmaceutical Products
Specialized Bacteria
Agricultural Products
Genetic Testing
Gene Therapy

Chapter 20 Genomics and Proteomics
Building a Chromosome for Class
20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences and
Organization of Entire Genomes
Genetic Maps
Physical Maps
Sequencing an Entire Genome
The Human Genome Project
What Exactly Is the Human Genome?
Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms
Copy-Number Variations
Synthetic Biology
20.2 Functional Genomics Determines the Functions of Genes by
Using Genomic Approaches
Predicting Function from Sequence
Gene Expression
Gene Expression and Reporter Sequences
Genome-Wide Mutagenesis
20.3 Comparative Genomics Studies How Genomes Evolve
Prokaryotic Genomes
Eukaryotic Genomes
The Human Genome
20.4 Proteomics Analyzes the Complete Set of Proteins Found in a
Determination of Cellular Proteins
Affinity Capture
Protein Microarrays
Structural Proteomics

Chapter 21 Epigenetics
Epigenetics and the Dutch Hunger Winter
21.1 What Is Epigenetics?
21.2 Several Molecular Processes Lead to Epigenetic Changes
DNA Methylation
Histone Modifications
Epigenetic Effects of RNA Molecules
21.3 Epigenetic Processes Produce a Diverse Set of Effects
Behavioral Epigenetics
Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Chemicals
Epigenetic Effects on Metabolism
Epigenetic Effects in Monozygotic Twins
X Inactivation
Epigenetic Changes Associated with Cell Differentiation
Genomic Imprinting
21.4 The Epigenome

Chapter 22 Developmental Genetics and Immunogenetics
The Origin of Spineless Sticklebacks
22.1 Development Takes Place Through Cell Determination
Cloning Experiments on Plants
Cloning Experiments on Animals
22.2 Pattern Formation in Drosophila Serves as a Model for the
Genetic Control of Development
The Development of the Fruit Fly
Egg-Polarity Genes
Segmentation Genes
Homeotic Genes in Drosophila
Homeobox Genes in Other Organisms
CONNECTING CONCEPTS The Control of Development
Epigenetic Changes in Development
22.3 Genes Control the Development of Flowers in Plants
Flower Anatomy
Genetic Control of Flower Development
CONNECTING CONCEPTS Comparison of Development in Drosophila and
22.4 Programmed Cell Death Is an Integral Part of Development
22.5 The Study of Development Reveals Patterns and Processes of
22.6 The Development of Immunity Occurs Through Genetic
The Organization of the Immune System
Immunoglobulin Structure
The Generation of Antibody Diversity
T-Cell-Receptor Diversity
Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes
Genes and Organ Transplants

Chapter 23 Cancer Genetics
Palladin and the Spread of Cancer
23.1 Cancer Is a Group of Diseases Characterized by Cell
Tumor Formation
Cancer As a Genetic Disease
The Role of Environmental Factors in Cancer
23.2 Mutations in Several Types of Genes Contribute to Cancer
Oncogenes and Tumor-Suppressor Genes
Genes That Control the Cell Cycle
DNA-Repair Genes
Genes That Regulate Telomerase
Genes That Promote Vascularization and the Spread of Tumors
MicroRNAs and Cancer
Cancer Genome Projects
23.3 Epigenetic Changes Are Often Associated with Cancer
23.4 Colorectal Cancer Arises Through the Sequential Mutation of a
Number of Genes
23.5 Changes in Chromosome Number and Structure Are Often
Associated with Cancer
23.6 Viruses Are Associated with Some Cancers
Retroviruses and Cancer
Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

Chapter 24 Quantitative Genetics
Corn Oil and Quantitative Genetics
24.1 Quantitative Characteristics Are Influenced by Alleles at
Multiple Loci
The Relation Between Genotype and Phenotype
Types of Quantitative Characteristics
Polygenic Inheritance
Kernel Color in Wheat
Determining Gene Number for a Polygenic Characteristic
24.2 Statistical Methods Are Required for Analyzing Quantitative
Samples and Populations
The Mean
The Variance and Standard Deviation
Applying Statistics to the Study of a Polygenic Characteristic
24.3 Heritability Is Used to Estimate the Proportion of Variation in
a Trait That Is Genetic
Phenotypic Variance
Types of Heritability
Calculating Heritability
The Limitations of Heritability
Locating Genes That Affect Quantitative Characteristics
24.4 Genetically Variable Traits Change in Response to Selection
Predicting the Response to Selection
Limits to the Response to Selection
Correlated Responses to Selection

Chapter 25 Population Genetics
The Wolves of Isle Royale
25.1 Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies Are Used To Describe the
Gene Pool of a Population
Mathematical Models for Understanding Genetic Variation
Calculating Genotypic Frequencies
Calculating Allelic Frequencies
25.2 The Hardy–Weinberg Law Describes the Effect of
Reproduction on Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies
Genotypic Frequencies at Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium
Closer Examination of the Hardy–Weinberg Law
Implications of the Hardy–Weinberg Law
Extensions of the Hardy–Weinberg Law
Testing for Hardy–Weinberg Proportions
Estimating Allelic Frequencies with the Hardy–Weinberg Law
25.3 Nonrandom Mating Affects the Genotypic Frequencies of a
25.4 Several Evolutionary Forces Can Change Allelic Frequencies
Genetic Drift
Natural Selection
CONNECTING CONCEPTS The General Effects of Forces That Change Allelic

Chapter 26 Evolutionary Genetics
Taster Genes in Spitting Apes
26.1 Evolution Occurs Through Genetic Change within Populations
Biological Evolution
Evolution as a Two-Step Process
Evolution in Bighorn Sheep
26.2 Many Natural Populations Contain High Levels of Genetic
Molecular Variation
26.3 New Species Arise Through the Evolution of Reproductive
The Biological Species Concept
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms
Modes of Speciation
Genetic Differentiation Associated with Speciation
26.4 The Evolutionary History of a Group of Organisms Can Be
Reconstructed by Studying Changes in Homologous
The Alignment of Homologous Sequences
The Construction of Phylogenetic Trees
26.5 Patterns of Evolution Are Revealed by Molecular Changes
Rates of Molecular Evolution
The Molecular Clock
Evolution Through Changes in Gene Regulation
Genome Evolution
Reference Guide to Model Genetic Organisms
The Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster
The Bacterium Escherichia coli
The Nematode Worm Caenorhabditis elegans
The Plant Arabidopsis thaliana
The Mouse Mus musculus
The Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Working with Fractions: A Review
Answers to Selected Problems

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