Textbook of PATHOLOGY pdf

 
Author:
Harsh Mohan
Release at: 2015
Pages: 969
Edition:
Seventh Edition
File Size: 77 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English


Description of Textbook of PATHOLOGY


This is the 7th edition of Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan, I look back with satisfaction how this book has grown phenomenally since its modest beginning in 1992. In this year's successive editions of the Textbook of Pathology have brought me closer to enumerable won me, life-long friends, well-wishers, rewarded me with respect and faith of my colleagues, got me blessings of senior professionals, and earned me the affection of innumerable students and fans. It has been a really highly gratifying journey so far. Sometimes, such an abiding trust by users of previous editions of my pathology textbook certainly puts an onerous responsibility on me to come up to their expectations and make it better with every new edition. It is this zeal and motivation which I pursued while preparing the thoroughly updated and transformed. Textbook of Pathology 7th edition which I am pleased to present to users.

Diagnostic pathology has been growing exponentially with advances in immunology, molecular methods, and cytogenetics, besides the ready availability of immunohistochemistry. In fact, in the current era, immunophenotyping and cytogenetics have been recommended as defining criteria for classification, diagnosis, and prognostication of the growing number of cancers. In such a scenario, it is quite natural that pathology undergraduate students should be made aware of what is happening of diagnostic science in the realm while at the same time not forgetting to lose hold of the fundamental aspects of the pathology of diseases. 

This textbook is primarily meant, a balanced approach for pathology learning is recommended i.e. the students must learn recent knowledge of aetiology, the pathogenesis of diseases, simultaneously and basic morphologic pathology they should know the contribution of modern diagnostic techniques mentioned above towards achieving the goal of final diagnosis that is prognostically relevant as well. This philosophy for learning and teaching of pathology has been followed in the present edition but without disturbing the basic format of this pathology book.

Content of Textbook of PATHOLOGY



Section I: GENERAL PATHOLOGY

Chapter 1: Introduction to Pathology  1

Study of Pathology, 1:  Health and Disease, 1; Common Terms in Pathology, 1

Evolution of Pathology, 2:  Prehistoric Times to Medieval Period, 2; Human Anatomy and Era of Gross Pathology, 3; Era of Technology Development and Cellular Pathology, 4; Modern Pathology, 6;

Telepathology and Virtual Microscopy, 7

Subdivisions of Pathology, 7:  Morphological Branches, 7; Non-Morphological Branches, 8

Chapter 2: Cell Injury, Cellular Adaptations and Cellular Ageing 9

Cell Injury, 9:  Etiology of Cell Injury, 9; Pathogenesis of Cell Injury, 10; Morphology of Reversible Cell Injury, 17; Intracellular Accumulations, 19; Pigments, 22; Morphology of Irreversible Cell Injury (Cell Death), 26; Changes after Cell Death, 32

Adaptive Disorders, 37:  Atrophy, 37; Hypertrophy, 38; Hyperplasia, 39; Metaplasia, 39; Dysplasia, 41

Ageing, 42:  Theories of Ageing, 42; Organ Changes in Ageing, 43

Chapter 3: Immunopathology Including Amyloidosis  44

The Immune System, 44:  Organs and Cells of Immune System, 44; Cytokines, 48; HLA System and Major Histocompatibility Complex, 48; Transplant Rejection, 49

Diseases of Immunity, 50:  Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), 51; Hypersensitivity Reactions (Immunologic Tissue Injury), 57; Autoimmune Diseases, 61

Amyloidosis, 66:  Physical and Chemical Nature of Amyloid, 67; Pathogenesis of Amyloidosis, 69;

Classification of Amyloidosis, 70; Staining Characteristics of Amyloid, 72; Diagnosis of Amyloidosis, 73;

Morphologic Features of Amyloidosis of Organs, 73; Prognosis of Amyloidosis, 75

Chapter 4: Derangements of Homeostasis and Haemodynamics  78

Homeostasis, 78:  Normal Water and Electrolyte Balance (Gibbs-Donnan Equilibrium), 79;

Acid-Base Balance, 79; Pressure Gradients and Fluid Exchanges, 79

Disturbances of Body Water, 80:  Oedema, 80; Dehydration, 87; Overhydration, 87

Disturbances of Electrolytes and pH of Blood, 88:  Acid Base Imbalance, 89

Haemodynamic Derangements, 89:  Disturbances in the Volume of Circulating Blood, 90;

Circulatory Disturbances of Obstructive Nature, 99

Chapter 5: Inflammation and Healing  116

Acute Inflammation, 116:  Acute Inflammatory Response, 116; Mediators of Inflammation, 122;

Regulation of Inflammation, 127; The Inflammatory Cells, 128; Acute Inflammation—Factors, Morphology, Effects, Fate, 131

Chronic Inflammation, 134:  Granulomatous Inflammation, 135; Examples of Granulomatous Inflammation, 137

Healing, 155:  Regeneration and Repair, 155; Healing of Skin Wounds, 158; Healing in Specialised Tissues, 161; Stem Cell Concept of Healing—Regenerative Medicine, 163

Chapter 6: Infectious and Parasitic Diseases  165

Diseases Caused by Bacteria, Spirochaetes and Mycobacteria, 167:  Plague, 167; Anthrax, 168;

Whooping Cough (Pertussis), 169; Donovanosis, 170; Lymphogranuloma  Venereum, 170;

Cat-Scratch Disease, 170; Staphylococcal Infections, 170; Streptococcal Infections, 171;

Clostridial Diseases, 172

Diseases Caused by Fungi, 173:  Mycetoma, 173; Candidiasis, 173; Cutaneous Superficial Mycosis, 174

Diseases Caused by Viruses, 174:  Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers, 175; Influenza Virus Infections, 176;

Varicella Zoster Virus Infection, 177; Herpes Simplex Virus Infection, 177; Rabies, 178

Diseases Caused by Parasites, 178:  Amoebiasis, 178; Malaria, 179; Filariasis, 180; Cysticercosis, 181

Torch Complex, 182:

Chapter 7: Neoplasia  184

Nomenclature and Classification, 184

Characteristics of Tumours, 186

I.  Rate of Growth, 186; II.  Cancer Phenotype and Stem Cells, 188; III.  Clinical and Gross Features, 188;

IV.  Microscopic Features, 188; V. Spread of Tumours, 192; Grading and Staging of Cancer, 197

Epidemiology and Molecular Pathogenesis of Cancer, 197:  Epidemiologic Factors, 198;

Molecular Basis of Cancer, 201

Carcinogens and Carcinogenesis, 209:  A. Chemical Carcinogenesis, 210;

B. Physical Carcinogenesis, 214; C. Biologic Carcinogenesis, 216

Clinical Aspects of Neoplasia, 222:  Host Response against Tumour (Tumour Immunology), 222;

Effect of Tumour on Host, 224; Pathologic Diagnosis of Cancer, 226

Chapter 8: Environmental and Nutritional Diseases  231

Environmental Diseases, 231:  Environmental Pollution, 231; Chemical and Drug Injury, 233;
Injury by Physical Agents, 237

Nutritional Diseases, 238:  Obesity, 238; Starvation, 240; Protein-Energy Malnutrition, 240;

Metals and Trace Elements, 240; Disorders of Vitamins, 241; Diet and Cancer, 249

Chapter 9: Genetic and Paediatric Diseases  251

Genetic Diseases, 251:  Developmental Defects, 251; Cytogenetic (Karyotypic) Abnormalities, 252;

Single-Gene Defects (Mendelian Disorders), 254; Multifactorial Inheritance, 256; Storage Diseases (Inborn Errors of Metabolism), 256

Other Paediatric Diseases, 258:  Tumours of Infancy and Childhood, 259

Section II: HAEMATOLOGY AND LYMPHORETICULAR TISSUES

Chapter 10: Introduction to Haematopoietic System and Disorders of Erythroid Series  261

Bone Marrow and Haematopoiesis, 261:  Haematopoietic Organs, 261; Haematopoietic Stem Cells, 262; Bone Marrow Examination, 262

Erythropoiesis, 264:  Erythropoietin, 264; Erythroid Series, 265; The Red Cell, 265;

Nutritional Requirements for Erythro poiesis, 266

Anaemia—General Considerations, 268:  General Clinical Features, 268; General Scheme of Investigations of Anaemia, 269; Classification of Anaemias, 271

Hypochromic Anaemias, 272:  Iron Deficiency Anaemia, 272; Sideroblastic Anaemia, 277; Anaemia of Chronic Disorders, 278

Megaloblastic Anaemias—Vitamin B 12 and Folate Deficiency, 280:  Megaloblastic Anaemia, 280;

Pernicious Anaemia, 285

Haemolytic Anaemias and Anaemia due to Blood Loss, 286:  General Aspects, 287;

I. Acquired Haemolytic Anaemias, 288; II. Hereditary Haemolytic Anaemias, 291;

Anaemia of Blood Loss, 301

Aplastic Anaemia and Other Primary Bone Marrow Disorders, 301:  Aplastic Anaemia, 301;

Myelophthisic Anaemia, 303; Pure Red Cell Aplasia, 303

Chapter 11: Disorders of Platelets, Bleeding Disorders and Basic Transfusion Medicine  305

Disorders of Platelets, 305:  Investigations of Haemostatic Function, 306

Bleeding Disorders (Haemorrhagic Diathesis), 309:  Haemorrhagic Diatheses due to Vascular Disorders, 309; Haemorrhagic Diatheses due to Platelet Disorders, 310;

Coagulation Disorders, 313; Other Bleeding and Coagulation Disorders, 315

Blood Groups and Blood Transfusion, 317:  Blood Transfusion, 318; Haemolytic Disease of Newborn, 319

Chapter 12: Disorders of Leucocytes and Lymphoreticular Tissues  321

Lymph Nodes: Normal and Reactive, 321:  Reactive Lymphadenitis, 322

White Blood Cells: Normal and Reactive, 324:  Granulopoiesis, 324; Lymphopoiesis, 326; 

Mature Leucocytes in Health and Reactive Proliferation in Disease, 326; Infectious Mononucleosis, 329;

Leukaemoid Reactions, 331
Lymphohaematopoietic Malignancies (Leukaemias-Lymphomas): General, 333:  Etiology of Lymphohaematopoietic Malignancies, 334; Pathogenesis, 334

Myeloid Neoplasms, 335:  Myeloproliferative Diseases, 335; Acute Myeloid Leukaemia, 340;

Myelodysplastic Syndromes, 343
Lymphoid Neoplasms: General, 344:  Common to ALL Lymphoid Malignancies, 347 Hodgkin’s Disease, 348

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas-Leukaemias, 352:  Precursor (Immature) B- and T-Cell Leukaemia/Lymphoma, 353; Peripheral (Mature) B-Cell Malignancies, 355; Peripheral (Mature) T-Cell Malignancies, 359; Staging of NHL, 360; Lymph Node Metastatic Tumours, 360

Plasma Cell Disorders, 360

Histiocytic Neoplasms: Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis, 365

Spleen, 366:  Splenic Enlargement and Effects on Function, 367

Thymus, 368:  Structural and Functional Changes in Thymus, 369

Section III: SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

Chapter 13: The Blood Vessels and Lymphatics  370

Normal Structure, 370

Arteriosclerosis, 371:  Senile Arteriosclerosis, 371; Hypertensive Arteriolosclerosis, 371;

Mönckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis (Medial Calcific Sclerosis), 372; Atherosclerosis, 373

Vasculitis, 381:  I. Infectious Arteritis, 381; II. Non-Infectious Arteritis, 382

Aneurysms, 386

Common Diseases of Veins, 389

Diseases of Lymphatics, 390

Tumours and Tumour-like Lesions, 391:  A. Benign Tumours and Hamartomas, 391;

B. Intermediate Grade Tumours, 394; C. Malignant  Tumours, 394

Chapter 14: The Heart  397

Normal Structure and Classification, 397
Heart Failure, 399:  Etiology, 399; Types of Heart Failure, 399; Compensatory Mechanisms: Cardiac Hypertrophy and Dilatation, 400

Congenital Heart Disease, 402:  I.  Malpositions of the Heart, 403; II. Shunts (Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease), 403; III. Obstructions (Obstructive Congenital Heart Disease), 406

Ischaemic Heart Disease, 407:  Etiopathogenesis, 407; Effects of Myocardial Ischaemia, 408

Hypertensive Heart Disease, 417

Cor Pulmonale, 418

Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease, 418

Non-Rheumatic Endocarditis, 424:  Atypical Verrucous (Libman-Sacks) Endocarditis, 424;

Non-Bacterial Thrombotic (Cachectic, Marantic) Endocarditis, 425; Infective (Bacterial) Endocarditis, 425

Valvular Diseases and Deformities, 429

Myocardial Diseases, 432:  Myocarditis, 432; Cardiomyopathy, 434

Pericardial Diseases, 437:  Pericardial Fluid Accumulations, 437; Pericarditis, 437

Tumours of the Heart, 439

 Pathology of Cardiovascular Interventions, 440

Chapter 15: The Respiratory System  442

Normal Structure of Lungs, 442

Paediatric Lung Disease, 443

Pulmonary Vascular Disease, 446

Pulmonary Infections, 448:  Pneumonias, 448; Lung Abscess, 457; Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 457

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 458:  Chronic Bronchitis, 458; E Chronic Restrictive Pulmonary Disease, 467:  Pneumoconioses, 467; ILDs Associated with Immunologic Lung Diseases, 474; ILDs Associated with Connective Tissue Diseases, 475;

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, 476; ILDs Associated with Smoking, 476

Tumours of Lungs, 477:  Bronchogenic Carcinoma, 477; Bronchial Carcinoid and Other Neuroendocrine Tumours, 483; Hamartoma, 484; Metastatic Lung Tumours, 484

Diseases of Pleura, 485:  Inflammations, 485; Non-Inflammatory Pleural Effusions, 485;

Pneumothorax, 485; Tumours of Pleura, 486; Secondary Pleural Tumours, 487

Chapter 16: The Eye, ENT and Neck  488

Eye, 488:  Congenital Lesions, 488; Inflammatory Conditions, 489; Vascular Lesions, 489;

Miscellaneous Conditions, 491; Tumours and Tumour-like Lesions, 492

Ear, 495:  Inflammatory and Miscellaneous Lesions, 495; Tumours and Tumour-Like Lesions, 495

 Nose and Paranasal Sinuses, 496:  Inflammatory Conditions, 496; Tumours, 498

Pharynx, 499:  Inflammatory Conditions, 499; Tumours, 499

Larynx, 500:  Inflammatory Conditions, 500; Tumours, 500

Neck, 501:  Cysts of Neck, 502; Tumours, 502

Chapter 17: The Oral Cavity and Salivary Glands  504

Oral Soft Tissues, 504:  Developmental Anomalies, 504; Mucocutaneous Lesions, 504;

Inflammatory and Pigmentary Diseases, 504; Tumours and Tumour-like Lesions, 505

Teeth and Periodontal Tissues, 509:  Inflammatory Diseases, 510; Epithelial Cysts of the Jaw, 511;

Odontogenic Tumours, 513

Salivary Glands, 515:  Inflammatory and Salivary Flow Diseases, 515; Tumours of Salivary Glands, 516

Chapter 18: The Gastrointestinal Tract  521
Oesophagus, 521:  Congenital Anomalies, 521; Muscular Dysfunctions, 521; Haematemesis of Oesophageal Origin, 522; Inflammatory Lesions, 523; Tumours of Oesophagus, 524

Stomach, 526:  Gastric Analysis, 527; Congenital and Miscellaneous Acquired Conditions, 529;

Inflammatory Conditions, 529; Haematemesis and Melaena of Gastric Origin, 537; Tumours and Tumour-like Lesions, 537

Small Intestine, 544:  Congenital Anomalies and Intestinal Obstruction, 544; Ischaemic Bowel Disease (Ischaemic Enterocolitis), 546; Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis), 548; Infective and Other Enterocolitis, 552; Malabsorption Syndrome, 556;

Small Intestinal Tumours, 559

Appendix, 561:  Appendicitis, 561; Tumours of Appendix, 562

Large Bowel, 563:  Congenital and Other Miscellaneous Conditions, 563; Polyps and Tumours of Large Bowel, 566; Causes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding, 573

Peritoneum, 574:  Peritonitis, 574; Tumour-like Lesions and Tumours, 575

Chapter 19: The Liver, Biliary Tract and Exocrine Pancreas  577

Liver, 577:  Liver Function Tests, 578; Jaundice—General, 581; Neonatal Jaundice, 585;

Hepatic Failure, 587; Circulatory Disturbances, 589; Viral Hepatitis, 590; Other Infections and Infestations, 599; Chemical and Drug Injury, 601; Cirrhosis, 603; Portal Hypertension, 615;

Hepatic Tumours and Tumour-like Lesions, 617

Biliary Tract, 623:  Congenital Anomalies, 623; Cholelithiasis (Gallstones), 623;

Cholecystitis, 626; Tumours of Biliary Tract, 628

Exocrine Pancreas, 630:  Developmental Anomalies, 631; Pancreatitis, 631;

Tumours and Tumour-like Lesions, 633

Chapter 20: The Kidney and Lower Urinary Tract  636

Kidney, 636:  Renal Function Tests, 639; Pathophysiology of Renal Disease: Renal Failure, 640;

Congenital Malformations, 643; Glomerular Diseases, 647; Pathogenesis of Glomerular Injury, 649;

Specific Types of Glomerular Diseases, 652; Tubular and Tubulointerstitial Diseases, 666; 

Obstructive Uropathy, 672; Renal Vascular Diseases, 675; Tumours of Kidney, 680

Lower Urinary Tract, 685:  Congenital Anomalies, 685; Inflammations, 685; Tumours, 686

Chapter 21: The Male Reproductive System and Prostate  691

Testis and Epididymis, 691:  Developmental Disorders, 691; Inflammations, 692;

Miscellaneous Lesions, 694; Testicular Tumours, 694

Penis, 702:  Developmental and Inflammatory Disorders, 702; Tumours, 702

Prostate, 703:  Prostatitis, 704; Nodular Hyperplasia, 705; Carcinoma of Prostate, 706

Chapter 22: The Female Genital Tract  710

Vulva, 710:  Miscellaneous Conditions, 710; Vulval Tumours, 711

Vagina, 712:  Vaginitis and Vulvovaginitis, 712; Tumours and Tumour-like Conditions, 713

Cervix, 713:  Cervicitis, 713; Tumours, 714

Myometrium and Endometrium, 719:  Effects of Hormones, 720; Endometritis and Myometritis, 721; Adenomyosis, 721; Endometriosis, 722; Endometrial Hyperplasias, 723;

Tumours of Endometrium and Myometrium, 723

Fallopian Tubes, 728:  Inflammations, 728; Ectopic Tubal Pregnancy, 729; Tumours and Tumour-like Lesions, 729

Ovaries, 729:  Non-Neoplastic Cysts, 729; Ovarian Tumours, 730

Placenta, 741:  Hydatidiform Mole, 741; Choriocarcinoma, 742

Chapter 23: The Breast  745

Non-Neoplastic Conditions, 746:  Inflammations, 746; Fibrocystic Change, 746;

Gynaecomastia (Hypertrophy of Male Breast), 748

Breast Tumours, 748:  Fibroadenoma, 748; Phyllodes Tumour (Cystosarcoma Phyllodes), 749;

Intraductal Papilloma, 749; Carcinoma of the Breast, 750

Chapter 24: The Skin  759
Dermatoses, 760:  I. Genetic Dermatoses, 760; II. Non-Infectious Inflammatory Dermatoses, 761;

III. Infectious Dermatoses, 762; IV. Granulomatous Diseases, 765; V. Connective Tissue Dermatoses, 765;

VI. Non-Infectious Bullous Dermatoses, 766; VII. Scaling Dermatoses, 768; VIII. Metabolic Diseases of Skin, 769

Tumours and Tumour-like Lesions, 770:  I. Tumours and Cysts of the Epidermis, 771;

II. Adnexal (Appendageal) Tumours, 776; III.  Melanocytic Tumours, 777; IV. Tumours of the Dermis, 779; V. Cellular Migrant Tumours, 780

Chapter 25: The Endocrine System  782

Basic Concept of Endocrines, 782:  Neuroendocrine System, 782; The Endocrine System, 782

Pituitary Gland, 784:  Hyperpituitarism, 784; Hypopituitarism, 785; Pituitary Tumours, 786

Adrenal Gland, 787:  Adrenocortical Hyperfunction (Hyperadrenalism), 788; Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Hypoadrenalism), 789; Tumours of Adrenal Glands, 790

Thyroid Gland, 792:  Functional Disorders, 793; Thyroiditis, 794; Graves’ Disease (Diffuse Toxic Goitre), 796; Goitre, 797; Thyroid Tumours, 800

Parathyroid Glands, 806:  Hyperparathyroidism, 806; Hypoparathyroidism, 807;

Parathyroid Tumours, 808

Endocrine Pancreas, 808:  Diabetes Mellitus, 808; Islet Cell Tumours, 818

Miscellaneous Endocrine Tumours, 819

Chapter 26: The Musculoskeletal System  821

Skeletal System, 821:  Infection, Necrosis, Fracture Healing, 822; Disorders of Bone Growth and Development, 825; Metabolic and Endocrine Bone Diseases, 826; Paget’s Disease of Bone (Osteitis Deformans), 828; Tumour-like Lesions of Bone, 829; Tumours of Bone and Cartilage, 831

Joints, 841:  Degenerative Joint Disease (Osteoarthritis), 842; Inflammatory Joint Diseases, 843

Skeletal Muscles, 848:  Neurogenic Diseases, 848; Myopathic Diseases (Myopathies), 850

Chapter 27: Soft Tissue Tumours  851

General Features, 851

Soft Tissue Tumours, 853:  Tumours and Tumour-like Lesions of Fibrous Tissue, 853;

Fibrohistiocytic  Tumours, 855; Tumours of Adipose Tissue, 857; Skeletal Muscle Tumours, 859;

Tumours of Uncertain Histogenesis, 861

Chapter 28: The Nervous System  863

Central Nervous System, 863:  Developmental Anomalies and Hydrocephalus, 865;

Infections of CNS, 866; Cerebrovascular Diseases, 871; Miscellaneous Diseases, 875;

Tumours of the CNS, 878
Peripheral Nervous System, 884:  Pathologic Reactions to Injury, 884; Peripheral Neuropathy, 884;

Nerve Sheath Tumours, 885

APPENDICES

Appendix I: Basic Diagnostic Cytology  888

Exfoliative Cytology, 889:  I. Gynaecologic Exfoliative Cytology, 889; II. Non-Gynaecologic Exfoliative Cytology, 894; Techniques in Exfoliative Cytology, 897

Interventional Cytology, 899:  I. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, 899; II. Imprint Cytology, 905;

III. Crush Smear Cytology, 905; IV. Biopsy Sediment Cytology, 905

Appendix II: Answers to Clinical Cases  906

Preamble, 906

Appendix III: Normal Values  915

Weights and Measurements of Normal Organs, 915

Laboratory Values of Clinical Significance, 916

Further Reading  923

Index  931

List of Clinical Cases 954

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