Introduction to Biomaterials (PDF)

Introduction to Biomaterials
 
Author:
C. Mauli Agrawal, Joo L. Ong, Mark R. Appleford
& Gopinath Mani
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN No: 978-0-521-11690-9
Release at: 2014
Pages: 422
Edition:
1st Edition/Basic Theory with Engineering
Applications
File Size: 7 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of Introduction to Biomaterials


An Introduction to Biomaterials written by Mauli Agrawal is a great book for the study of biomaterials also available in eBook like (PDF) free download. The book Introduction to Biomaterials by C. Mauli Agrawal defines Biomaterials how to helped millions of people achieve a better quality of life in almost all corners of the world. Although the use of Introduction to Biomaterials book topic biomaterials has been common over many millennia, it was not until the 20th century that the field of biomaterials finally gained recognition. With the advent of polymers, machining processes and new processing for ceramics, metals, and general advances in technology, there has been an exponential growth in biomaterials related research and development activity over the past few decades. This activity has led to biomaterials based medical devices like a plethora, which are now commercially available.

Scope of biomaterials, this is an especially exciting time. On the one hand, they have the opportunity to meet and learn from some of the stalwarts and pioneers of the field such as Sam Hulbert, one of the founders of the Society for Biomaterials (SFB). Other greats include Allan Hoffman and Buddy Ratner (surfaces biomaterials), Robert Langer (tissue engineering and polymers science), Nicholas Peppas (hydrogels), Jack Lemons (dental implants/orthopedic), Julio Palmaz (intracoronary stents) and Joseph Salamone (contact lenses). Most of these individuals are still active in research and teaching. The authors (C. Mauli Agrawal) of this Introduction to Biomaterials book have been privileged to interact and learn from them in various forums, and students today have the same opportunities. On the other hand, with the current availability of sophisticated processing and characterization technologies, present-day students also have the tools to take the field to unprecedented new levels of innovation.

This Introduction to Biomaterials by C. Mauli Agrawal's book has been written as an introduction to biomaterials for college students. It can be used either at the junior/senior levels of undergraduate education or at the graduate level for biomedical engineering students. It is best suited for students who have already taken an introductory course in biology. We have felt the need for a textbook that caters to all students interested in biomaterials and does not assume that every student intends to become a biomaterials scientist. This Introduction to Biomaterials by C. Mauli Agrawal's book is a balance between science and engineering and presents both scientific principles and engineering applications.

Content of Introduction to Biomaterials



1 Introduction 1

1.1 Definitions 5

1.2 Changing focus 7

1.3 Types of bonds in materials 7

1.3.1 Ionic bonds 7

1.3.2 Metallic bonds 8

1.3.3 Covalent bonds 9

1.3.4 Secondary bonds 10

1.4 Types of materials 11

1.4.1 Ceramics 11

1.4.2 Metals 12

1.4.3 Polymers 14

1.4.4 Composites 14

1.5 Impact of biomaterials 15

1.6 Future of biomaterials 16

1.7 Summary 17

References 17

Problems 18

2 Basic properties of materials 19

2.1 Mechanical properties 20

2.1.1 Tensile testing 21

2.1.2 Compressive testing 26

2.1.3 Shear testing 27

2.1.4 Bend or flexural tests 27

2.1.5 Viscoelastic behavior 28

2.1.6 Ductile and brittle fracture 30

2.1.7 Stress concentration 32

2.1.8 Fracture toughness 33

2.1.9 Fatigue 34

2.2 Electrochemical properties 35

2.2.1 Corrosion 35

2.2.2 Types of corrosion 37

2.3 Surface properties 43

2.3.1 Contact angle 44

2.3.2 Hardness 44

2.4 Summary 45

Suggested reading 45

Problems 46

3 Biological systems 48

3.1 The biological environment 48

3.2 Genetic regulation and control systems 51

3.3 The plasma membrane 51

3.3.1 Membranes are phospholipid layers 52

3.4 Cytoskeleton and motility 53

3.5 Cell to cell communication pathways 55

3.6 Cell junctions 57

3.6.1 Tight junctions 57

3.6.2 Gap junctions 59

3.6.3 Adherens and desmosomes 61

3.7 Cell signaling pathways 62

3.7.1 Receptors as signaling sensors 63

3.7.2 Receptor classes 64

3.7.3 Second messengers and their activation/ deactivation 66

3.8 Biological testing techniques 68

3.8.1 Probe and labeling technologies 68

3.8.2 Examination of gene expression 69

3.8.3 The plasma membrane 69

3.8.4 Cytoskeleton and motility 70

3.8.5 Communication between cells 71

3.8.6 Mapping intracellular signaling 72

3.9 Summary 72

Suggested reading 73

Problems 73

4 Characterization of biomaterials 74

4.1 Contact angle 75

4.2 Infrared spectroscopy 80

4.2.1 Attenuated total reflection (ATR) 83

4.2.2 Specular reflectance 85

4.2.3 Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) 85

4.2.4 Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) 85

4.3 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 87

4.4 Secondary ion mass spectrometry 91

4.5 Atomic force microscopy 94

4.6 Scanning electron microscopy 98

4.7 Transmission electron microscopy 100

4.8 X-ray diffraction (XRD) 103

4.9 Chromatography 106

4.9.1 High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 106

4.9.2 gel permeation chromatography (GPC) 108

4.10 Summary 110

Suggested reading 110

References 111

Problems 111

5 Metals: structure and properties 113

5.1 Titanium and its alloys 114

5.1.1 Classification of Ti and its alloys based on crystallographic forms 116

5.1.2 Surface properties 119

5.1.3 Applications 119

5.2 Stainless steel 119

5.2.1 Martensitic stainless steels 120

5.2.2 Ferritic stainless steels 120

5.2.3 Austenitic stainless steels 120

5.2.4 Duplex stainless steels 122

5.2.5 Recent developments in stainless steel alloys 122

5.3 Cobalt–chromium alloys 123

5.3.1 ASTM F75 123

5.3.2 ASTM F799 125

5.3.3 ASTM F90 125

5.3.4 ASTM F562 126

5.4 Nitinol 126

5.5 Tantalum 128

5.6 Magnesium 129

5.7 Summary 130

References 131

Suggested reading 132

Problems 132

6 Polymers 134

6.1 Molecular structure of polymers 135

6.1.1 Molecular weight 139

6.2 Types of polymerization 141

6.3 Physical states of polymers 142

6.3.1 Amorphous phase 142

6.3.2 Crystalline phase 144

6.4 Common polymeric biomaterials 146

6.4.1 Polyethylene 146

6.4.2 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) 147

6.4.3 Polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) 150

6.4.4 Polycaprolactone (PCL) 152

6.4.5 Other biodegradable polymers 153

6.4.6 Polyurethanes 153

6.4.7 Silicones 154

6.5 Hydrogels 155

6.5.1 Synthesis of hydrogels 159

6.5.2 Properties of hydrogels 160

6.5.3 Applications 160

6.6 Nano polymers 161

6.7 Summary 162

References 163

Suggested reading 163

Problems 163

7 Ceramics 165

7.1 General properties 166

7.2 Classifications 167

7.2.1 Classification based on form 167

7.2.2 Classification based on composition 168

7.2.3 Classification based on reactivity 169

7.3 Bioceramics 169

7.3.1 Silicate glass 170

7.3.2 Alumina (Al2O3 ) 174

7.3.3 Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) 177

7.3.4 Carbon 179

7.3.5 Calcium phosphates (CaP) 180

7.3.6 Hydroxyapatite (HA) 183

7.3.7 Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) 186

7.3.8 Calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ·H 2 O) 187

7.3.9 Bioactive glass 188

7.4 Nanoceramics 189

7.5 Summary 195

References 196

Suggested reading 196

Problems 196

8 Natural biomaterials 198

8.1 Collagen 199

8.2 Elastin 204

8.3 Silk 207

8.4 Chitosan 210

8.5 Cellulose 213

8.6 Alginate 217

8.7 Hyaluronan 223

8.8 Chondroitin sulfate 226

8.9 Coral 228

8.10 Summary 231

References 231

Suggested reading 231

Problems 232

9 Surface modification 233

9.1 Abrasive blasting 234

9.2 Plasma glow discharge treatments 237

9.2.1 Direct current glow discharge 239

9.2.2 Alternating current glow discharge 240

9.2.3 Capacitively coupled radiofrequency glow discharge 241

9.2.4 Inductively coupled radiofrequency glow discharge 242

9.3 Thermal spraying 243

9.4 Physical vapor deposition (PVD) 251

9.4.1 Evaporative deposition 252

9.4.2 Pulsed laser deposition 253

9.4.3 Sputter deposition 254

9.5 Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) 261

9.6 Grafting 264

9.7 Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) 266

9.7.1 Patterning of self-assembled monolayers 271

9.8 Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly 274

9.8.1 Different layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly techniques 277

9.9 Summary 279

References 279

Suggested reading 280

Problems 280

10 Sterilization of biomedical implants 282

10.1 Common terminology 282

10.2 Steam sterilization 283

10.3 Ethylene oxide sterilization 285

10.4 Gamma radiation sterilization 287

10.5 Other sterilization methods 289

10.5.1 Dry heat sterilization 289

10.5.2 Formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde treatments 290

10.5.3 Phenolic and hypochlorite solution treatments 290

10.5.4 Ultraviolet (UV) radiation 290

10.5.5 Electron beam sterilization 291

10.6 Recently developed methods 291

10.6.1 Low-temperature gas plasma treatment 291

10.6.2 Gaseous chlorine dioxide treatment 292

10.7 Summary 292

References 293

Suggested reading 293

Problems 294

11 Cell–biomaterial interactions 295

11.1 The extracellular environment 297

11.2 Extracellular matrix mimics 309

11.3 Cell interactions with non-cellular substrates 309

11.4 Biocompatibility testing and techniques 314

11.4.1 Immunostaining techniques for studying cell–ECM interactions 316

11.4.2 Profiling a cell line for its ECM binding characteristics 317

11.4.3 Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting 318

11.5 Summary 319

Reference 319

Suggested reading 319

Problems 320

12 Drug delivery systems 321

12.1 Diffusion controlled drug delivery systems 323

12.1.1 Membrane controlled reservoir systems 323

12.1.2 Monolithic matrix systems 324

12.2 Water penetration controlled drug delivery systems 325

12.2.1 Osmotic pressure controlled drug delivery systems 326

12.2.2 Swelling controlled drug delivery system 327

12.3 Chemically controlled drug delivery systems 328

12.3.1 Polymer–drug dispersion systems 328

12.3.2 Polymer–drug conjugate systems 329

12.4 Responsive drug delivery systems 331

12.4.1 Temperature-responsive drug delivery systems 331

12.4.2 pH-responsive drug delivery systems 332

12.4.3 Solvent-responsive drug delivery systems 333

12.4.4 Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems 333

12.4.5 Electrically responsive drug delivery systems 334

12.4.6 Magnetic-sensitive drug delivery systems 334

12.5 Particulate systems 335

12.5.1 Polymeric microparticles 335

12.5.2 Polymeric micelles 336

12.5.3 Liposomes 336

12.6 Summary 337

References 339

Suggested reading 339

Problems 340

13 Tissue engineering 341

13.1 Tissue engineering approaches 342

13.1.1 Assessment of medical need 342

13.1.2 Selecting a tissue engineering strategy 343

13.2 Cells 344

13.2.1 Stem cells 345

13.2.2 Biopreservation of cells 347

13.3 Scaffold properties 349

13.4 Fabrication techniques for polymeric scaffolds 350

13.4.1 Solvent casting and particulate leaching 350

13.4.2 Electrospinning 350

13.4.3 Solid freeform fabrication (SFFF) 351

13.5 Fabrication of natural polymer scaffolds 354

13.6 Fabrication techniques for ceramic scaffolds 357

13.6.1 Template sponge coating 357

13.6.2 Non-sintering techniques 357

13.7 Assessment of scaffold architecture 358

13.8 Cell seeded scaffolds 361

13.8.1 Cell culture bioreactors 361

13.8.2 Cell seeding 363

13.8.3 Growth factors 364

13.8.4 Mechanical modulation 366

13.9 Assessment of cell and tissue properties 367

13.9.1 Cellular properties 367

13.9.2 Tissue properties 371

13.10 Challenges in tissue engineering 372

13.11 Summary 373

References 373

Suggested reading 373

Problems 374

14 Clinical applications 375

14.1 Cardiovascular assist devices 376

14.2 Cardiovascular stents 378

14.3 Dental restoration 381

14.4 Dental implants 384

14.5 Neural prostheses 386

14.6 Opthalmology 387

14.7 Orthopedic implants 390

14.8 Renal 393

14.9 Skin applications 394

14.10 Summary 397

Additional reading 397

Problems 397

Index 399

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