Plant Structure and Development (PDF)

Plant Structure and Development
Charles B. Beck
Release at: 2010
Pages: 465
2nd Edition
File Size: 18 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English

Description of Plant Structure and Development

Plant Structure and Development by 2nd Edition written by Charles B. Beck is a plant developmental biology ebook available in (PDF) to free download. Although it has been only five years since this book was first published, research activity during this period in many areas of plant development has resulted in much new and important information. The plant structure is basic information and quite stable. As a result, the inclusion of new information about various aspects of the development comprises the major changes in this 2nd edition. In addition, the evolution of tracheary elements added a new section.

The areas upgraded or expanded include the function & pollen tube tip growth, structure of the cytoskeleton and its role in cell wall formation; the role of auxin and other hormones in development, especially in the development of microelements, tissue patterning, cambial activity and the role of PIN proteins in the movement of auxin from cell to cell by auxin efflux transporters. 

The discussion on the mechanism of movement of stomatal guard cells has been improved & expanded. Sections on long-distance transport in the secondary xylem and phloem have been modified to emphasize widely accepted mechanisms of transport, and the discussion of bidirectional transport in the phloem has been expanded. the discussion of gravitropism has been brought up to date. Finally, throughout the 'An Introduction to Plant Structure and Development' book, discussions of the role of genetics in plant development have been expanded.

I believe the changes listed above have made the 'An Introduction to Plant Structure and Development' book more useful to advanced and researchers & students without adversely affecting its usefulness as an introductory plant anatomy textbook. It is not designed to be used as the only source of information in a course in plant anatomy, i.e., to take the place of the teacher, but rather, to be a supplement to a means teacher’s lectures and for the student to reinforce information from the laboratory exercises and teacher.

An introduction to Plant Structure and Development 2nd Edition book can, of course, also be an original source of information for students beyond that provided by the teacher. When used in a course that emphasizes development, the student will have the opportunity to expand his or her knowledge of plant structure, and in a course that emphasizes plant structure, the student can expand his or her knowledge of plant development. Ideally, however, a twenty-first-century course in plant anatomy should consist of an integration of structure and development. It is this idea that I have tried to promote the design and preparation of this An Introduction to Plant Structure and Development 2nd Edition book.

Content of Plant Structure and Development

Chapter 1 Problems of adaptation to a terrestrial environment 1

Perspective: the origin of vascular plants 1
Structural adaptations 3
Preview of subsequent chapters 5
References 6
Further reading 7

Chapter 2 An overview of plant structure & development 8

Perspective: the origin of multicellularity 8
The shoots system of the vascular plant 10
Apical meristems 13
Primary tissue regions of the stem and root 17
Vascular bundle types 23
Secondary growth 26
Cells of the xylem 29
Cells of the phloem 33
References 35
Further reading 36

Chapter 3 The protoplast of the eukaryotic cell 38

Perspective 38
Morphology of the protoplast 39
Vacuoles 51
Movement of organelles in the protoplast 51
Orgastic substances 53
References 55
Further reading 57

Chapter 4 Structure & development of the cell wall 58

Perspective 58
Structure and composition of the cell wall 59
Growth of the cell wall 65
Cell wall development 68
Plasmodesmata 72
References 77
Further reading 81

Chapter 5 Meristems of the shoot and their role in plant growth & development 83

Perspective 83
Apical meristems 83
Formation of leaf primordia 90
Transitional tissue regions 92
Intercalary meristems 95
The primary peripheral thickening meristem of monocotyledons 96
Cell growth and development 97
The effect of hormones on cell growth and development 98
Genetic control of cell growth and development 99
Role of the cytoskeleton in cell growth and development 100
Cell shaping by microtubules 102
References 103
Further reading 106

Chapter 6 Morphology and development of the primary vascular system of the stem 108

Perspective 108
Cellular composition and patterns of development of primary xylem 109
Cellular composition and patterns of development of primary phloem 112
Differentiation of primary vascular tissues 113
The role of auxin in the development of the primary vascular system 119
References 121
Further reading 122

Chapter 7 Sympodial patterns and systems of nodal anatomy 123

Perspective: leaf traces 123
Nodal structure of pteridophytes 123
Sympodial systems of seed plants 125
Leaf trace lacunae 134
The cauline vs. foliar nature of vascular bundles in the eustele 135
Phyllotaxy 136
References 139
Further reading 140

Chapter 8 The epidermis 141

Perspective 141
The epidermis of the shoot 141
The epidermis of the root 149
Stomata 149
Signal transduction and movement in guard cells 152
Development of stomata 153
References 155
Further reading 156

Chapter 9 The origin of secondary the effect & tissue systems of their formation on the primary body in seed plants 157

Perspective: role of the vascular cambium 157
The effect of secondary growth on the primary body 160
The effect of secondary growth on leaf and branch traces 162
References 165
Further reading 165

Chapter 10 The vascular cambium: structure and function 166

Perspective 166
Structure of the vascular cambium 166
General overview of cambial activity 169
Plant hormones and cambial activity 173
Submicroscopic structure of cambial initials 174
The onset of dormancy and the reactivation of dormant cambium 175
Cytokinesis in fusiform initials 177
The problem of differential growth of cambial cells and immature cambial derivatives 178
References 179
Further reading 182

Chapter 11 Secondary xylem 184

Perspective 184
Overview of the structure of secondary xylem 184
Secondary xylem of gymnosperms 187
Resin ducts 193
Secondary xylem of dicotyledons 194
Differentiation of tracheary elements 199
Patterns of distribution of xylary elements and rays 207
Tyloses 211
Evolution in secondary xylem of dicotyledons 213
Mechanism of water transport 215
References 216
Further reading 220

Chapter 12 The phloem 222

Perspective: evolution of the phloem 222
Gross structure and development of the phloem 223
The nature and development of the cell wall of sieve elements 228
Role of the cytoskeleton in wall development 231
The nature and development of the protoplast of sieve elements 232
Nature and function of P-protein 234
Distinctive features of the phloem of gymnosperms 236
The nature and function of companion cells and Strasburger cells 237
The mechanism of transport in the phloem 241
References 242
Further reading 245

Chapter 13 Periderm, rhytidome, and the nature of bark 247

Perspective 247
Periderm: structure and development 247
Formation of rhytidome 250
Lenticels 252
The outer protective layer of monocotyledons 253
References 254
Further reading 254

Chapter 14 Unusual features of structure and development in stems and roots 255

Perspective 255
Primary peripheral thickening meristem 255
Secondary growth in monocotyledons 256
Anomalous stem and root structure 257
References 263
Further reading 263

Chapter 15 Secretion in plants 264

Perspective 264 
Substances secreted by plants 264
Mechanisms of secretion 265
Internal secretory structures 266
External secretory structures 270
References 276
Further reading 278

Chapter 16 The root 279

Perspective: evolution of the root 279
Gross morphology 281
Contractile roots and other highly specialized root systems 282
Apical meristems 283
The quiescent center and its role in development 286
Primary tissues and tissue regions 288
Lateral transport of water and minerals in the young root 295
Development of primary tissues 297
Auxin and tissue patterning 301
Lateral root development 302
Adventitious roots 306
Secondary growth 306
The root cap: its function and role in gravitropism 307
Mycorrhizae 312
Nitrogen fixation in root nodules 313
Root–stem transition 315
References 316
Further reading 321

Chapter 17 The leaf 324

Perspective: evolution of the leaf 324
Basic leaf structure 325
Leaf development 334
The role of the cytoskeleton in leaf development 340
The role of genetics in leaf development 341
Variations in leaf form, structure, and arrangement 343
Structure in relation to function 346
Photosynthesis and phloem loading 346
Leaf structure of C 3 and C 4 plants 348
Supporting structures in leaves 349
Transfusion tissue in conifers 350
Leaf abscission 351
References 353
Further reading 357

Chapter 18 The origin and Reproduction of the sporophyte 361

Perspective: the plant life cycle 361
Reproduction in gymnosperms 362
Reproduction in angiosperms 366
Development of the seed in angiosperms 373
Fruit development and the role of fruits in seed dispersal 377
Seed germination and development of the seedling 380
Floral morphogenesis 381
Pollen–pistil interactions 384
Self-incompatibility 387
Role of the cytoskeleton in pollen tube growth 388
References 390
Further reading 394
Glossary 398

Index 433



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