Sewage Pollution and Microbiology (PDF)

Sewage Pollution and Microbiology
 
Author:
B.D. Tiwari
Release at: 2009
Pages: 311
Edition:
1st Edition
File Size: 11 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English


Description of Sewage Pollution and Microbiology



Sewage Pollution and Microbiology by B.D. Tiwari is a great book for study sewage Pollutions & microbiology available in PDF free download. This is an introduction to selvage pollution and microbiology for students of science, medicine, and environmental science which is designed to hold the reader's attention and to stimulate his interest. The author has kept the book short so as to encourage the student to feel that he can grasp and understand the whole subject; a point especially important at a time when other subjects are making large demands on his time. This book is concerned more with current ideas in sewage pollution than with a list of the currently known facts of the subject; for author feels that this approach is more likely to interest students who are starting the subject and, in consequence,  is more likely to lead to their remembering the subject.

The techniques for the detection of pollutants have been described in a very lucid style so that an average student may understand them. The methods for water treatment processes, designing, and treatment of industrial effluents and methods for prevention or control of pollution have been described.

The author of this Sewage Pollution and Microbiology book expresses his thanks to all those colleagues,  friends, and research scholars whose continuous inspirations have initiated him to bring this title. The author wishes to thank the staff members and publisher for bringing out this Sewage Pollution and Microbiology book. Constructive criticisms and suggestions for improvement.of the book will be thankfully acknowledged.

Content of Sewage Pollution and Microbiology



1.  Introduction


1.1 Bio-insecticides Based on BT 

1.2 Mode of Action of BT d-Endotoxins

1.3 Structure and Function of d-Endotoxins

1.4 Transgenic Plants Resistant to Insects

1.5 Novel Systems using BT

1.6 Conclusion


2.  Water Pollution 


2.1 Types and Effects of Water Pollution

2.1.1 Infectious Agents

2.1.2 Oxygen-Demanding Wastes 

2.1.3 Plant Nutrients and Cultural Eutrophication

2.1.4 Toxic Inorganic Materials

2.1.5 Organic Chemicals

2.1.6 Sediment

2.1.7 Thermal Pollution and Thermal Shocks

2.2 Water Quality Today

2.2.1 Surface Waters in the United States and Canada

2.2.2 Surface Waters in Other Countries

2.2.3 Groundwater and Drinking Water Supplies

2.2.4 Ocean Pollution

2.3 Water Pollution Control

2.3.1 Source Reduction

2.3.2 Nonpoint Sources and Land Management

2.3.3 Human Waste Disposal

2.4 Water Legislation

2.4.1 The Clean Water Act

2.4.2 Clean Water Act Reauthorization

2.4.3 Other Important Water Legislation


3.  Residential Waste


3.1 Treatment and Disposal of Sewage Wastes

3.1.1 Historical Perspective

3.1.2 Sewage Water-Its Treatment and Disposal

3.1.3 Eutrophication: A Problem of Nutrient-Rich Water

3.1.4 Controlling Eutrophication

3.1.5 Controlling Inputs vs. Treatment

3.1.6 Cleaning Up

3.2 Disposal and Recycling of Solid Wastes

3.2.1 What is Solid Waste?

3.2.2 Means of Disposal: Past, Present, and Future

3.2.3 Problem of Recycling

3.2.4 Converting Municipal Solid Waste to Energy

3.2.5 Reducing Waste Volume


4.  Commercial Waste


4.1 Attitudes, Assumptions, and Pollution Problems

4.1.1 Why Do Humans Polluted?

4.1.2 Assumptions Underlying the Casual Attitude toward Pollution

4.1.3 Limits of Assumption

4.2 Assumptions Applied to Pollution Problems

4.2.1 Air Pollution

4.2.2 Water Pollution

4.2.3 Solid Wastes and Accidents

4.3 Coping with Pollution

4.3.1 Recognizing Threats of Pollution

4.3.3 Implementing Controls

4.3.4 Pollution and Lifestyle


5.  Sewage Treatment


5.1 Wastes from Fossil Fuel Combustion

5.1.1 Sulphur Dioxide

5.1.2 NOx, Carbon Monoxide and Unburnt Hydrocarbons

5.1.3 Particulates

5.1.4 Residual solids

5.1.5 Carbon Dioxide

5.2 Low-hazard Solid Wastes

5.3 Low-hazard Waste Waters (Sewage)

5.4 High-hazard Wastes

5.4.1 Treatment and Disposal

5.4.2 International Trade in High-hazard Wastes

5.5 Waste Minimisation, Cleaner Production and Integrated Waste Management


6. Environment of Microorganisms


6.1 Microorganisms and All Life's Activities

6.2 Fluctuating Microorganisms

6.3 Marine Environments

6.4 Marine Sediments

6.5 Marine Ecology

6.6 Classified Microorganisms

6.7 Effects of Water and Sediment

6.8 Array of Microorganism

6.9 Chemical Reactions

6.10 Microbial Modes of Life

6.11 Chemical Conversions

6.12 Microbial Ecology

6.13 Fixation of Nitrogen

6.14 Free-living Microorganisms

6.15 Fixing Nitrogen in Roots of Plant

6.16 Utilizing Ammonia Microorganisms

6.17 Nitrates and Micro-organisms

6.18 Microorganisms and Sulphur Compounds


7.  Soil Microorganisms


7.1 Geologic Activity on the Young Earth

7.2 Origin of the Earth's Atmosphere and Ocean

7.2.1 Water

7.2.2 Carbon Dioxide

7.2.3 Oxygen

7.2.4 The Next Step

7.3 Synthesis of Monomers

7.3.1 Synthesis of Amino Acids, Sugars, and Bases

7.3.2 L- and D-Amino Acids

7.4 Synthesis of Polymers

7.4.1 Concentration Mechanisms

7.4.2 Energy Sources

7.4.3 Catalysts

7.5 Origin of the Cell

7.5.1 Origin of the Organizing Mechanism

7.5.2 RNA Quasi-Species

7.5.3 RNA Hyper cycles

7.5.4 Protocells


8. Commercial Microbes


8.1 Developing an Industrial Process

8.1.1 Purity and Mature of Cultures

8.1.2 Cultural Conditions

8.1.3 Productive Mutants

8.1.4 Medium or Raw Material

8.1.5 Nature of the Process

8.1.6 Preliminary Experimentation

8.2 Types of Fermentation Processes

8.2.1 Batch Fermentation

8.2.2 The continuous-growth process

8.2.3 Submerged Aerobic Cultures

8.3 Industrial Ethyl Alcohol Manufacture

8.4 Alcoholic Beverage Industries

8.4.1 Whiskey

8.4.2 Beer

8.4.3 Wine

8.5 Production of Butanol

8.6 Production of Vinegar

8.6.1 Genus Acetobacter

8.7 Foods from Wastes

8.7.1 Amino Acid Production

8.7.2 Hydrocarbons for Protein

8.8 Steroid Transformations

8.9 Enzymes of Microorganisms in Industry

8.9.1 Moldavan Process

8.9.2 Gibberellin (Gibberellic Acid)

8.10 Microbiological Assay

8.11 Industrial Spoilage


9. Decomposers


9.1 The Structure and Components of Wood

9.2 White, Brown And Soft Rots

9.3 Lignin Degradation

9.3.1 Role of Extracellular Penalties

9.3.2 Cleavage of Major Linkage Groups

9.3.3 A hypothetical scheme for lignin degradation

9.3.4 Role of Agents Other Than Enzymes

9.3.5 Physical Barrier to Cellulase

9.4 Natural Resistance to Fungal Decay

9.4.1 Lignification

9.4.2 Refractivity of Cellulose

9.4.3 Nitrogen Content

9.4.4 Moisture Content

9.4.5 Toxic Substances

9.5 Other Wood-Inhabiting Fungi

9.5.1 Blue-stain Fungi

9.5.2 Dutch elm disease

9.6 Environmental Factors

9.7 Specificity of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi

9.8 Ecological Studies on Decaying Wood

9.8.1 Pioneer Colonization Stage

9.8.2 Decomposition Phase

9.9 Decomposition and Humus in the Soil

9.9.1 The Nature of Humus

9.9.2 Turnover of Humus in Soil

9.10 Fungal Decomposers of Leaves

9.10.1 The Leaf as a Spore Trap

9.11 Phylloplane Inhabitants

9.11.1 Nutrient Sources

9.12 Common Primary Saprotrophs

9.13 Pathogens

9.14 Exochthonous Fungi

9.15 Fungi of Leaf Surface

9.15.1 Microbial Interactions in the Phylloplane

9.15.2 Fungistatic Substances Produced by Leaves

9.16 Common Primary Saprotrophs

9.17 Attributes of the Common Primary Saprotrophs

9.17.1 Nutrients

9.17.1 Growth Rates

9.17.2 Tolerance to Desiccation

9.17.3 Survival Structures

9.17.4 Subsequent Colonizers and Leaf Decay

9.18 Decomposition of Pine Needles

9.19 Litter Micro-fauna

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