VIROLOGY Principles and Applications (PDF)

VIROLOGY Principles and Applications
 
Author:
John B. Carter & Venetia A. Saunders
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN No: 978-1-119-99142-7
Release at: 2013
Pages: 512
Edition:
2nd Edition
File Size: 6 MB
File Type: pdf
Language: English



Description of VIROLOGY Principles and Applications


VIROLOGY Principles and Applications written by John B. Carter & Venetia A. Saunders ebook for viruses study in (PDF/EPUB) to get a free download. Virology is a rapidly developing, fascinating subject and is worthy of study purely because viruses are interesting. Virology is a branch of biology or science that study of immense relevance to mankind for a host of reasons, not least of which are the threats to human diseases caused by viruses, like HIV, hepatitis B virus, papillomaviruses, measles, and influenza viruses, to mention just a few. There is a continuing need for trained virologists, and it is hoped that this book will play a small role in helping to fulfill this need. The material in the VIROLOGY Principles and Applications book is based on virology taught at Liverpool John Moores University.

This is not a textbook of clinical virology, modern virology, fundamental virology, veterinary virology, medical virology, plant virology or bacteriophages, but a bit of each of these! The general pattern of this VIROLOGY book is that principles of virology are covered earlier and applications are covered later. There are simplify demarcate between two, however, so the reader may be made aware of important applications while principles are being introduced. The first 10 chapters cover basic aspects of virology.

The chapter defines methods used in virology that comes early in this virology book but could be skimmed to gain an overview of its contents & thereafter used for reference. The seven Baltimore classes in one chapter, concentrating mainly on animal viruses. There is a chapter devoted entirely to HIV & an extended chapter on reflecting and phages the renewed interest in their biology & applications. After a chapter on the origins and evolution of viruses, there follow five chapters covering various aspects of applied virology, including vaccines and antiviral drugs. The last chapter is on prions, which are considered along with the viruses.

Content of VIROLOGY Principles and Applications



1 Viruses and their importance 1
At a glance 1
1.1 Viruses are ubiquitous on Earth 3
1.2 Reasons for studying viruses 3
1.3 The nature of viruses 4
1.4 The remainder of the book 7
Learning outcomes 7
Sources of further information 7

2 Methods used in virology 9
At a glance 9
2.1 Introduction to methods used in virology 11
2.2 Cultivation of viruses 12
2.3 Isolation of viruses 13
2.4 Centrifugation 13
2.5 Structural investigations of cells and virions 17
2.6 Electrophoretic techniques 17
2.7 Detection of viruses & virus components 18
2.8 Infectivity assays 22
2.9 Virus genetics 26
Learning outcomes 28
Sources of further information 28

3 Virus structure 31
At a glance 31
3.1 Introduction to virus structure 32
3.2 Virus genomes 32
3.3 Virus proteins 37
3.4 Capsids 39
3.5 Virion membranes 45
3.6 Occlusion bodies 47
3.7 Other virion components 47
Learning outcomes 48
Sources of further information 48

4 Virus transmission 49
At a glance 49
4.1 Introduction to virus transmission 50
4.2 Transmission of plant viruses 51
4.3 Transmission of vertebrate viruses 54
4.4 Transmission of invertebrate viruses 56
4.5 Permissive cells 57
Learning outcomes 58
Sources of further information 58

5 Attachment & entry of viruses into cells 59
At a glance 59
5.1 Overview of virus replication 60
5.2 Animal viruses 61
5.3 Bacteriophages 68
Learning outcomes 68
Sources of further information 68

6 Transcription, translation and transport 69
At a glance 69
6.1 Introduction to transcription, translation and transport 70
6.2 Transcription of virus genomes 70
6.3 Transcription in eukaryotes 72
6.4 Translation in eukaryotes 77
6.5 Transport in eukaryotic cells 81
6.6 Transcription and translation in bacteria 83
Learning outcomes 84
Sources of further information 84

7 Virus genome replication 85
At a glance 85
7.1 Overview of virus genome replication 86
7.2 Locations of virus genome replication in eukaryotic cells 88
7.3 Initiation of genome replication 88
7.4 Polymerases 89
7.5 DNA replication 90
7.6 Double-stranded RNA replication 91
7.7 Single-stranded RNA replication 92
7.8 Reverse transcription 92
Learning outcomes 93
Sources of further information 93

8 Assembly and exit of virions from cells 95
At a glance 95
8.1 Introduction to assembly and exit of virions from cells 96
8.2 Nucleocapsid assembly 96
8.3 Formation of virion membranes 98
8.4 Virion exit from the infected cell 101
Learning outcomes 101
Sources of further information 102

9 Outcomes of infection for the host 103
At a glance 103
9.1 Introduction to outcomes of infection for the host 105
9.2 Factors affecting outcomes of infection 105
9.3 Non-productive infections 110
9.4 Productive infections 112
Learning outcomes 114
Sources of further information 114

10 Classification and nomenclature of viruses 115
At a glance 115
10.1 History of virus classification and nomenclature 116
10.2 Modern virus classification and nomenclature 116
10.3 Baltimore classification of viruses 119
Learning outcomes 119
Sources of further information 120

11 Herpesviruses (and other dsDNA viruses) 121
At a glance 121
11.1 Introduction to herpesviruses 122
11.2 The human herpesviruses 122
11.3 The herpesvirus virion 123
11.4 HSV-1 genome organization 124
11.5 HSV-1 replication 124
11.6 Latent herpesvirus infection 130
11.7 Other dsDNA viruses 132
Learning outcomes 135
Sources of further information 135

12 Parvoviruses (and other ssDNA viruses) 137
At a glance 137
12.1 Introduction to parvoviruses 138
12.2 Examples of parvoviruses 138
12.3 Parvovirus virion 139
12.4 Parvovirus replication 141
12.5 Other ssDNA viruses 143
Learning outcomes 146
Sources of further information 146

13 Reoviruses (and other dsRNA viruses) 147
At a glance 147
13.1 Introduction to reoviruses 148
13.2 Rotavirus virion 148
13.3 Rotavirus replication 150
13.4 Other dsRNA viruses 155
Learning outcomes 155
Sources of further information 155

14 Pi-cornaviruses (and other plus-strand RNA viruses) 157
At a glance 157
14.1 Introduction to picornaviruses 158
14.2 Some important picornaviruses 158
14.3 Picornavirus Virion 160
14.4 Picornavirus replication 161
14.5 Picornavirus recombination 169
14.6 Picornavirus experimental systems 169
14.7 Other plus-strand RNA viruses 170
Learning outcomes 172
Sources of further information 172

15 Rhabdoviruses (and other minus-strand RNA viruses) 173
At a glance 173
15.1 Introduction to rhabdoviruses 174
15.2 Some important rhabdoviruses 175
15.3 The rhabdovirus virion and genome organization 177
15.4 Rhabdovirus replication 177
15.5 Other minus-strand RNA viruses 183
15.6 Viruses with ambisense genomes 183
15.7 Reverse genetics 183
Learning outcomes 184
Sources of further information 184

16 Retroviruses 185
At a glance 185
16.1 Introduction to retroviruses 186
16.2 Retrovirus virion 186
16.3 Retrovirus replication 188
16.4 Examples of retroviruses 194
16.5 Retroviruses as gene vectors 194
16.6 Endogenous retroviruses 194
Learning outcomes 196
Sources of further information 196

17 Human immunodeficiency viruses 197
At a glance 197
17.1 Introduction to HIV 198
17.2 HIV virion 198
17.3 HIV genome 199
17.4 HIV-1 replication 199
17.5 HIV-1 variability 209
17.6 Progression of HIV infection 209
17.7 Prevention of HIV transmission 210
Learning outcomes 211
Sources of further information 211

18 Hepadnaviruses (and other reverse-transcribing DNA viruses) 213
At a glance 213
18.1 Introduction to hepadnaviruses 214
18.2 Importance of HBV 214
18.3 HBV virion 215
18.4 Non-infectious particles 216
18.5 Soluble virus protein 216
18.6 HBV genome 216
18.7 HBV genetic groups 218
18.8 HBV replication 218
18.9 Prevention & treatment of HBV infection 225
18.10 Other reverse-transcribing DNA viruses 225
Learning outcomes 227
Sources of further information 227

19 Bacterial viruses 229
At a glance 229
19.1 Introduction to bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) 230
RNA PHAGES 231
19.2 Single-stranded RNA phages 231
19.3 Double-stranded RNA phages 237
DNA PHAGES 237
19.4 Single-stranded DNA phages 237
19.5 Double-stranded DNA phages 246
Learning outcomes 255
Sources of further information 255

20 Origins and evolution of viruses 257
At a glance 257
20.1 Introduction to origins & evolution of viruses 258
20.2 Origins of viruses 258
20.3 Evolution of viruses 261
Learning outcomes 270
Sources of further information 270

21 Emerging viruses 273
At a glance 273
21.1 Introduction to emerging viruses 274
21.2 Viruses in new host species 274
21.3 Viruses in new areas 276
21.4 Viruses in new host species and in new areas 278
21.5 New viruses 279
21.6 Recently discovered viruses 281
21.7 Re-emerging viruses 281
21.8 Virus surveillance 282
21.9 Dealing with outbreaks 282
Learning outcomes 283
Sources of further information 283

22 Viruses and cancer 285
At a glance 285
22.1 Introduction to viruses and cancer 286
22.2 Papillomavirus-linked cancers 287
22.3 Polyomavirus-linked cancers 287
22.4 Epstein-Barr virus-linked cancers 289
22.5 Kaposi’s sarcoma 290
22.6 Adult T cell leukemia 290
22.7 Hepatocellular carcinoma 290
22.8 Virus-associated cancers in animals 291
22.9 Cell lines derived from virus-associated cancers 291
22.10 How do viruses cause cancer? 291
22.11 Prevention of virus-induced cancers 295
Learning outcomes 296
Sources of further information 296

23 Survival of infectivity 297
At a glance 297
23.1 Preservation of virus infectivity 298
23.2 Destruction of virus infectivity 298
23.3 Inactivation targets in virions 298
23.4 Inactivation kinetics 298
23.5 Agents that inactivate virus infectivity 299
Learning outcomes 303
Sources of further information 303

24 Virus vaccines 305
At a glance 305
24.1 Introduction to virus vaccines 306
24.2 Live attenuated virus vaccines 306
24.3 Inactivated virus vaccines 307
24.4 Virion subunit vaccines 309
24.5 Live recombinant virus vaccines 309
24.6 Mass production of viruses for vaccines 310
24.7 Virus-like particles 311
24.8 Synthetic peptide vaccines 311
24.9 DNA vaccines 311
24.10 Storage and transport of vaccines 312
Learning outcomes 313
Sources of further information 313

25 Anti-viral drugs 315
At a glance 315
25.1 Introduction to anti-viral drugs 316
25.2 Development of anti-viral drugs 316
25.3 Examples of anti-viral drugs 317
25.4 Drug resistance 322
25.5 Anti-viral drug research 324
Learning outcomes 325
Sources of further information 325

26 Prions 327
At a glance 327
26.1 Introduction to prions 328
26.2 Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies 328
26.3 The nature of prions 328
26.4 Prion diseases 330
26.5 Prion strains 332
26.6 Prion transmission 332
26.7 The protein-only hypothesis 333
Learning outcomes 333
Sources of further information 333
Virologists’ vocabulary 335


Index 349

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